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Portrait of a publisher... 











Published in Commemoration of 
the One Hundredth Anniversary 
of D. Appleton and Company 

NEW YORK : : 1925 : : LONDON 




William Worthen Appleton 




Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2013 


The subject of this sketch is Mr. William Worthen 
Appleton, the third generation of a famous American 
publishing house, but the circumstances compel me to 
try for something more. And this for the reason that 
Mr. Appleton lived to see a typical American trans- 
formation. When he was admitted to his father's and 
grandfather's firm, in 1868, book publishing, like most 
American businesses, was a success of personal initiative 
and private enterprise. When he died, fifty-five years 
later, although individual energy and ability were as 
valuable as ever, something large and impersonal had 
arisen that no individual could absolutely control. He 
understood that, with the wisdom of all those great 
hearts who know that nothing is created alone and who 
desire only that the thing created shall be greater than 
they and more durable than the days of a man. 

With his tall, white-haired distinction, his gentleness 
and his fineness, "Mr. Willie," as he was called in 
respect and affection, may stand very well for almost 
the last of the old-time publishers. These men were 
perhaps a handful, like the great editors who were 
their strict contemporaries — Dana, Raymond, Godkin, 
Henry Watterson. They performed a very similar 
service and they were alike in their position in the back- 



ground of our national life. Yet even as statesmen and 
presidents turned to the Danas and the Godkins for 
guidance, so those other leaders of mankind, the great 
scientists, historians, and educators of every sort rested 
their anxieties and hopes upon the great publisher — 
often with a confidence truly childlike, seldom to their 

W. W. Appleton had designed to write his memoirs 
under some such title as "A Century of Publishing," 
but his modesty, with its frequent postponements, was 
fatal to the enterprise. It is the only black mark against 
him that he was thus himself personally responsible for 
the loss to us of what would certainly have been one of 
the most interesting works on the list of his house. 

An Anglo-Saxon word meaning "orchard" was 
assumed as a surname by an English family of Norman 
descent as early as 1216, and one William de Appleton, 
of Suffolk, dying in 1326, was a man of property. 
Direct descent can be traced unbrokenly from John 
Appulton of Waldingfield Magna, who died in 1414. 
One Samuel Appleton, the eighth generation, came to 
Ipswich, Massachusetts, in 1635. The fifth generation 
born in America, Daniel Appleton, of Haverhill, Massa- 
chusetts, is a gentleman wearing a blue coat with bright 
buttons, a light buff vest and blue trousers or pantaloons 
— a suit like Daniel Webster's — selected from the 
excellent stock of his own drygoods store in Haverhill. 
It has been told how he removed to Boston to enter the 
wholesale drygoods business and how, in 1825, he 
removed once more to New York, where a book depart- 
ment was installed with his young son, William H. 



Appleton, in charge. Six years later the production 
of "Crumbs from the Master's Table," a tiny book of 
Biblical selections, began a publishing business under 
the imprint "D. Appleton." On the entrance of William 
Henry Appleton as a member of the firm, in 1838, the 
imprint became "D. Appleton & Company," and has 
since so remained. 

William Worthen Appleton, eldest son of William 
Henry Appleton and Mary Worthen, was born Novem- 
ber 29, 1845. He was educated at private schools in 
New York and prepared for Harvard, but was pre- 
vented by ill health from entering college. His first 
business experience was gained in 1865, when he made 
a journey in the South, representing his father's firm in 
the collection of accounts. He was twenty, eager for 
adventure, and he found it. 


The thirty-odd years' publishing history of the house 
had already accumulated its share of picturesque inci- 
dents. William Henry Appleton had made his first 
trip abroad in the 1830's, meeting Byron, Thackeray, 
Tom Moore and others, and snapping up a thousand 
copies of "The Book of Beauty," expensive and success- 
ful. Webster's Spelling Book, with its blue covers, 
had sold huge editions and was shortly to sell over 
1,000,000 copies a year. Most of the large piers on 
which the reputation of D. Appleton & Company stands 
so solidly to-day had been established — medical books, 
educational books, books in Spanish. Because of 
undertaking Spanish books in the 1840's, the house had 



found itself obliged to do a general export business to 
South America, with such amusing incidents as the order 
for an ornate hearse and the remittance of the plumage 
of rare birds to liquidate an outstanding bill. 

The publication of the New American Cyclopedia, 
edited by Charles A. Dana and begun in 1857, had been 
completed in 1863 and the sale of sets was in the tens 
of thousands. 

William W. Appleton's adventure was to be of an- 
other sort. 

The novels of Madame Louisa Muhlbach had appar- 
ently been offered some time previously to most of the 
leading American publishers, although not to D. Apple- 
ton & Company, and had been declined. But while 
getting about as best he could in the South in 1865, Mr. 
Appleton came upon a copy of "Joseph II and His 
Court," translated by a resident of Mobile, printed on 
wretched straw paper, and bound in thick covers of 
highly colored wall paper — the only stiff paper to be 
had for the purpose. He wrote home recommending 
publication in the North. The book was a great success, 
and so was the whole series of Muhlbach novels which 
were then brought out. The ultimate sales ran into the 
millions of copies. The twenty-year-old could not have 
done so well if he had discovered a gold mine. 

It was the first signal manifestation of that genius for 
publishing which was to characterize him throughout 
his life. There is no accounting for this flair, bent or 
instinct. Certainly it is not transmitted by heredity and 
its possession by W. W. Appleton is therefore the more 
remarkable. It cannot, in its true brilliance, be 



acquired. The next year was to show a still more 
remarkable demonstration of his gift. 

He was twenty-one, and went to England with an 
uncle on a purchasing trip. He became greatly inter- 
ested in a new book for children called "Alice in Won- 
derland." He purchased a quantity of the English 
sheets for binding and publication in America. It was 
felt that he had made a bad buy; indeed, for some 
months the book lay in the Appleton stock room in 
practically untouched piles, while Mr. Appleton sub- 
mitted to a good deal of jesting at his expense. But the 
next year, and the years thereafter — ! This Appleton 
first edition of Lewis Carroll's masterpiece is now of 
great rarity, its value enhanced by the fact that it is 
from the English sheets. If you have one it is worth 
considerable, I fancy. 

Instances of Mr. Appleton's right instinct are numer- 
ous, but I will cite only two more, from later years — 
the most famous, I think. One is his discovery of Joel 
Chandler Harris through reading an Uncle Remus story 
which had appeared in the Atlanta Constitution and had 
been copied by the New York Evening Post. The other 
requires to be told in its setting. 

A Canadian professor of medicine at McGill Uni- 
versity had, some time before, been brought to Phila- 
delphia to fill the chair of clinical medicine at the 
University of Pennsylvania. As a teacher this man was 
attracting very wide and favorable attention. It was 
evident to Mr. William W. Appleton that he would soon 
be compelled to write. And when he wrote, his book 
was likely to be one of importance. 



The editor in charge of medical publications for 
D. Appleton & Company was on the alert. A series of 
letters and personal calls began; the professor in Phila- 
delphia was very thoroughly appraised of the fact that 
a book was desired from him. Preoccupied with the 
day's work, he paid little attention. He was very busy; 
he would have to defer writing. His name was William 

It is no exaggeration to say that the medical editor 
pursued Dr. Osier; from Dr. Osier's standpoint, it 
probably lost the semblance of pursuit and took on the 
guise of an amiable persecution. Still nothing was 
accomplished. And, after all, editors are human; their 
energy is finite. Dr. Osier, the patient, so to speak, 
was practically given up by the editor. 

About this time Mr. William W. Appleton inquired, 
not for the first time, as to the imminence of a book by 
Dr. Osier. 

The history of the case was presented with eloquence, 
with pathos, and with the suggestion of other emotions. 

But Mr. Appleton had a point of view. It was 
strictly professional, like a physician's. One does not 
give up visiting the patient because he is sinking or 
because it appears hopeless. One continues until he 
either dies or engages another doctor. 

Similarly, Mr. Appleton urged, a publisher is not de- 
feated until his man dies with a book unwritten or writes 
the book and gives it to another publisher. 

The case was resumed. 

And at last the thing happened. Dr. William Osier 
wrote the book and gave it to D. Appleton & Company 



to publish. It was called "The Principles and Practice 
of Medicine." 

It was published in 1892. In the thirty-two years 
since it has sold in excess of 300,000 copies. 

I do not know whether or not it is the most important 
medical book published in America, but any challenger 
for the title must fight stiffly. The book is a bible of 
the medical profession. 

"His great textbook," said the London Times editori- 
ally, at the time of the death of Sir William Osier, 
Baronet, in 1919, "has become one of the foundation 
stones of our knowledge. Nothing quite like it has ever 
been accomplished before. Nothing quite like it can be 
achieved again." 

Seven years after the publication of "The Principles 
and Practice of Medicine," a great bequest by Johns 
Hopkins, a banker of Baltimore, founded the famous 
university and the equally famous hospital which bear 
his name. The two were to be closely tied and on Dr. 
Osier fell the new, delicate and enormously important 
task of articulating the work of the two institutions. 
His success is historic. Afterward he went to Oxford 
University to become Regius Professor of Medicine. 


The genius for publishing is a jewel with many facets. 
It is not enough to be able to discover a great author or 
a great work. One must be able to discover and supply 
a popular appetite. The Appleton house has done this 
on more than one memorable occasion. Those of you 
who may read this and who are of my own age or older, 



can remember the extreme vogue of books, often almost 
wholly pictorial works, published in small sections, 
monthly, to be afterwards combined and kept in port- 
folios or bound as the owner might wish. I believe that 
W. W. Appleton supervised the first of these enterprises, 
conducted on a scale overwhelming in those days and 
not small in these. This was the work called "Pic- 
turesque America," edited by William Cullen Bryant. 
Issued in twenty parts, and afterward in two bound 
volumes, the work contained hundreds of woodcuts and 
steel engravings by the foremost artisans of the day, 
and represented an outlay of $250,000. It was so 
successful that Bayard Taylor was got to edit "Pic- 
turesque Europe" and Henry Codman Potter, afterward 
Bishop Potter, of New York, prepared a third produc- 
tion called "Picturesque Palestine." Of these, 
6,000,000 parts, or 600,000 volumes, were sold. W. W. 
Appleton supervised the publication of these anxious 
ventures and directed an expedition to secure the mate- 
rial for "Picturesque Palestine." 

These were great undertakings, but they were only a 
part of the activity to which he committed himself. He 
inaugurated and developed the inexpensive editions of 
Appleton's Town and Country Library (50 cents in 
paper; $1.00 in cloth) which were so popular in the 
period of 1880-1900. The early work of such novelists 
as Joseph Conrad, W. J. Locke, J. C. Snaith, Robert 
Hichens, Leonard Merrick, E. F. Benson, Gilbert 
Parker, Joseph A. Altsheler, Molly Elliott Seawell and 
Mary Cholmondeley appeared in this library. 

Throughout his lifetime Mr. Appleton was the princi- 



pal developer of the famous Appleton line of college 
textbooks. Twice a year he visited most of the leading 
colleges of the country and he was a personal friend of 
great teachers and noted educators in all parts of 
America. It would, for example, be ridiculous to write 
of W. W. Appleton without speaking of his long and 
enduring friendship with the late G. Stanley Hall. Mr. 
Appleton's great service was to act as the stern but 
generous critic of Dr. Hall's work. The psychologist 
and educator, when he came to write, was incurably 
pedantic. He had constantly to be remonstrated with, 
curbed, and compelled or persuaded to simplify; and 
it is almost solely due to his publishers, and particularly 
to W. W. Appleton, I am persuaded, that Dr. Hall has 
any general reputation at all. But Mr. Appleton had the 
wit to see that here was a mind as subtle and a talent 
as shining as William James', although bent in a differ- 
ent direction. James had the one indispensable thing 
that Hall lacked, the gift of popular expression. It is 
even possible that the native endowment of Hall was 
greater — he had and kept more zest, his views, with 
their interest in genetics or beginnings, were broader 
than James's. Perhaps we owe it to Mr. Appleton that 
he became a force in American education and American 
thinking and not simply a force among the specialists 
in research. 

No part of a publisher's work is more difficult than 
his relations with his authors. In Mr. Appleton's day, 
these relations were inevitably to a large extent per- 
sonal. The business transformation of which I spoke 
at the beginning of this sketch has to a great extent 

1 11 1 


depersonalized the dealings of author and publisher. 
An author may now, if he chooses, have the same purely 
business dealings with his publisher that he has with 
the shop where he buys his clothes. But where the 
author wishes something more intimate, his wish must 
be met. It is, of course, an affair of temperament, and 
the fact that it is one in which the publisher cannot be 
the chooser does not lessen its difficulties from his side. 

I do not really believe, as the result of some observa- 
tion, that the problem of mixed business and personal 
relations between author and publisher is any more trou- 
blesome than the same mixture elsewhere; but as the 
perils of mixing business and friendship are proverbial, 
the publisher cannot find much help in the fact. I have 
said that he may not choose these contacts; I might add 
that he must not shrink from them. He may have his 
reserves but he will do well to avoid even the milder 
hypocrisies. And if there was in his lifetime — or now 
— a man who more finely understood and practiced 
these principles than Mr. Appleton, I do not know who 
he is. For example: 

He was a warm personal friend of Herbert Spencer, 

Thomas H. Huxley, and other great scientists and great 

men of his time. There is not space here to traverse, or 

even to name, all these friendships, but perhaps that 

with Herbert Spencer was reasonably typical. I should 

like to be able to present in full a series of Spencer's 

letters to Mr. Appleton; a digest must suffice. They 

are at intervals from August, 1891, to May, 1901, and 

I shall resume them chronologically. But first a word 

about Spencer. 



The inventor, so to speak, of the Unknowable was 
an only child who spent most of his life in a boarding 
house in a wretched and steadily losing struggle with 
ill health — which, however, one may suspect to have 
been originally self-inflicted. At any rate, as young 
as twenty Spencer was writing apprehensively to his 
father about his condition. By the time he was thirty- 
six he had achieved a complete nervous breakdown. 
That was in 1855. Thereafter he suffered horribly 
from insomnia and either could, or believed that he 
could, work only for tiny periods without suffering 
nervous exhaustion. "Many days he could only dic- 
tate ten minutes at a time and then only three or four 
times a day; some days he could not work at all." He 
tried rowing and walking and tennis, stopping in mid- 
play to dictate for ten minutes, then resuming his exer- 
cise. His brow was smooth and unwrinkled. You may 
find in his "Autobiography" the verbose and fairly con- 
ceited explanation he gave to George Eliot — that he 
never puzzled, but let his intellectual problems germi- 
nate their own spontaneous conclusions. 

Spencer, therefore, was ruined before W. W. Apple- 
ton ever knew him. He had had the grand climax 
of the nervous breakdown; he lived only to suffer, to 
write his great books and to find a publisher when 

The first letter before me is a long one concerned 
with the copyrighting of literary work in the United 
States and is pertinent only because Spencer mentions 
the sale of one of his books in America as 162,000 
copies, very casually, and without any sign of ap- 



preciation or of gratitude. A year later he is writing 
in a very typical vein: 

... I happened to take up the American edition 
of the 'Ethics,' . . . and forthwith discovered an error 
of a serious kind, showing alike an unintelligent com- 
positor and a careless, or unintelligent reader, and 
which is provoking because it compromises me. On 
p. 507, seven lines from the end of the last paragraph, 
come the words 'and is affected at great cost to the 
second.' Immediately I saw this I suspected that it 
was the doing of your people, and found on referring 
to the English edition that there it was right — 'and is 
effected at great cost to the second.' The American 
version makes nonsense of the meaning but unfortu- 
nately it is a kind of nonsense which may be taken by 
some readers to imply ignorance of the difference of 
meaning between 'affected' and 'effected.' I hope there 
are not many such mistakes. It is clearly requisite 
that a sharp and critical reader should in all cases be 

"I suppose your dull season is not yet over, and 
that the new volume is not moving off much. What 
has been the reception of it by the press? If there 
are any notices of interest you might send them 
over. . . . 

"I have just got back from my summer residence in 
the country in moderate condition, not having profited 
so much this year as I usually do. 

"P. S. Of course you will see that the error I have 
named is corrected as soon as may be. It would be 
a very convenient custom to establish that those to 



whom an author sends gratis copies of his work should 
be at the trouble of subsequently sending to the pub- 
lisher notices of any typographical errors they have 
observed in reading." 

Such a custom would certainly cause authors' gift 
copies to be more widely shunned than at present. 

That any reader of Herbert Spencer should think 
it doubtful that Spencer didn't know the difference of 
meaning between "affected" and "effected" is bosh. 
Mr. Appleton wisely did not make this obvious reply. 
He seems to have done his best, in the face of a sense 
of humor, to answer sympathetically. But two months 
later Spencer's nerves have not got over the affair. He 
is writing (November 13, 1892) as follows: 

"I was a little surprised at the way in which you 
made light of a certain error that I wished to have forth- 
with rectified — where 'effects' was put for 'affects' 
[sic] : remarking as you did that everybody would see 
it was a mere typographical error. But the inclosed 
leads me to suspect that you may in America have per- 
haps ceased to make a distinction between the two; 
for here is the same mistaken use of the word. I cut 
it out from the report of the Brooklyn Ethical Institute, 
12th year. I do not see by whom it is printed. Is it 
printed by you? If so, this same error may result 
from the misunderstanding of the same reader, and he 
should be instructed in the matter — he should be told 
that to affect means to influence and to effect means to 

A series of letters written in 1893 are concerned with 
various things. Spencer has reprinted certain essays 



on "The Inadequacy of 'Natural Selection' ' and wants 
an American edition brought out, regardless of cost, as 
"my aim is to diffuse the contents of the pamphlets 
as widely as possible. ... Of course it will not be 
copyright, but insofar as I am concerned it matters 
not if it is pirated." A life of E. L. Youmans is under 
way and Spencer is anxious that it shall have as a motto 
on the title page a remark of Mr. Appleton's in a recent 
letter to Spencer: "He was a sort of scientific John 
the Baptist for the United States." Spencer is anxious 
that Mr. Appleton shall understand that his "Educa- 
tion" has been universally adopted in English normal 
schools, although in deference to the opinion of Cardi- 
nal Manning, some Catholic colleges are exceptions. 
On March 12, 1894, there is a new and hugeous cause 
for complaint: 

"I received almost a shock on seeing the enclosed 
portrait. You must, I think, acknowledge that it is 
really an outrageous caricature — coarse and truculent. 

"It is, I presume, made from the photograph which 
I sent over to you some length of time ago, but the 
whole character of the thing has been destroyed in the 
reproduction. Pray suppress it as promptly as may 

The following year, when he was in London, Mr. 
Appleton received a summons. The day is May 16, 

"I have just returned from Brighton, and before you 
depart for the U. S. should be glad to see you for a 
short time. 

"I cannot ask you to luncheon, as I should like 



otherwise to do, for I should not dare to undertake 
the entailed conversation. I cannot promise to extend 
our talking beyond five or ten minutes. 

"My nervous system is in a very shaky state and I 
am continually relapsing in consequence of what seem 
trivial excitements but which are to me disastrous." 

A year later, May 7, 1896, the case is no better: 

"I am but just recovering from a serious relapse 
brought on by overworking myself in writing letters 
to the Times about the metric system. For a month 
I have not been able to go to the Club, and pass the 
time largely in bed. Though I went to the Club yester- 
day I dare not go to-day. 

"I say this because you will understand why it limits 
my possibilities of appointment. I dare not ask you 
here to lunch as I should be glad otherwise to do, be- 
cause it would entail too much conversation. Perhaps 
the best plan will be for you to come to me at the 
Athenaeum. Unless you get a telegram to the contrary 
you may expect to find me there at four o'clock 

Five years later and the last letter of the series, dated 
May 24, 1901, writing, as always, to "Dear Mr. Ap- 
pleton," "truly yours, Herbert Spencer" has undergone 
no essential change. The same frightful preoccupation 
with his bodily well-being, the same traces of pettiness 
and suspiciousness, are to the fore: 

"I am sorry to say that my health is such as to nega- 
tive the interview you suggest. You in common with 
most people do not understand what a thorough invalid 
I am. At the end of last August I had rather too long 



a conversation with a gentleman who came to see me 
at Bepton, and the result was that I have never been 
up to my low level since: I have not taken a drive 
since last August, and for six months was never out of 
doors until a fortnight ago, when an experiment in 
a bath chair did me great harm. My only hope is 
that of getting into the country in June, and that I 
may have a chance of doing this I must be extremely 
rigid in avoiding all possible sources of relapse. You 
must therefore please excuse me if I do not see you. 

"What about the portrait painted of me by Burgess 
for your father many years ago? I sat on the distinct 
understanding that the painting was to be given to a 
public body — I believe the Century Club.* I was sur- 
prised some years ago to learn that the portrait was 
hanging in your store, but I concluded that your father 
might reply that he was bequeathing it to the said 
institution. What has now become of it? If it passed 
over into the hands of the new Company along with 
other property, it ought, on the strength of this original 
understanding, to be reclaimed from them and given 
in conformity with your father's bequest, if it had not 
been already so bequeathed by him." 

Three years later Herbert Spencer died. In spite 
of his nerves, or maybe by virtue of them, he was 
well past eighty. Since then others have written letters 
to the London Times about the metric system and have 
experimented in bath chairs but without approaching 
his results. 

* The portrait was presented to and is now hanging in the New York 
Public Library. 




I have dwelt at such length on these letters partly 
because of Spencer's importance and partly from amuse- 
ment, but really in the main because they so well illus- 
trate — with a sort of one-track, express-speed exaggera- 
tion — the difficulty of the personal relation between two 
men in the publishing business, if not in any business. 
There is no possible doubt, for though I have not cited 
the evidence, it exists, that Spencer esteemed William 
W. Appleton greatly. The men were warm friends. 
Yet the moments must have been many when Mr. Ap- 
pleton wondered whether a sense of humor was a bless- 
ing or a curse. 

He was diplomatic — successfully so — because he was 
by nature kind; he succeeded, from first to last, be- 
cause his instinct was to be friendly. But above all 
it was his instinct to be fair. It was this extreme fair- 
ness that made him the trusted friend and adviser of 
Huxley and Spencer and Hall Caine and Maarten Maar- 
tens — and dozens of others. 

One of the earlier instances of his fairness concerns 
the publication of the Sherman memoirs. 

One day William H. Appleton noticed in a morning 
paper a brief dispatch from St. Louis, stating that Gen- 
eral William Tecumseh Sherman had completed his 
autobiography. Mr. William W. Appleton was or- 
dered to take the first train west. He went with re- 
luctance, since the clear presumption was that so im- 
portant a book was already the property of some 
publisher by long prearrangement. His surprise was 



complete when, in answer to his card, General Sherman 
walked into the room with the remark: 

"I suppose you have come to publish my book?" 

Mr. Appleton had brought a rough form of contract 
with him. The General also had his own form. There 
was a friendly talk and then the General said: 

"I must consult with my wife about this. She settles 
all such matters for me." 

The next day Mr. Appleton and Mrs. Sherman con- 
sulted together and Mrs. Sherman decided that the 
Appleton contract was much the better. But the Gen- 
eral balked: 

"No, I have decided to sign my own!" 

The book was an enormous success and the General 
matched fairness toward him with fairness toward the 
public. Although assured that the sale of the book 
could be multiplied by four if it were sold by sub- 
scription, Sherman never would consent to such sale, 
declaring that he would not run the risk of having a 
single one of his old soldiers cajoled or bullied into 
the purchase of a book for the profit of his old com- 

Mr. Appleton used his best persuasion but at last 
surrendered unconditionally to the General. 

In another enterprise of great public and private 
importance Mr. Appleton showed not only his fairness 
but his mettle. 

An account of the long struggle to secure an Ameri- 
can copyright law would be tedious. But a few sen- 
tences of explanation may not be misplaced. For about 
a century there was no protection in this country for 



foreign literary work. Pirating was usual, and the 
history of more than one American publishing firm is 
black with it. It was from the first the practice of 
D. Appleton & Company to pay the English or other 
foreign author his royalties, exactly as if the work were 
fully protected in this country. To revert for a moment 
to the Miihlbach novels: When Mr. Appleton picked 
up that copy of "Joseph II and His Court" in the South 
in 1865, he found it copyrighted in the Confederate 
States of America. Now a very distinguished lawyer 
wished to settle in the courts the value of Confederate 
copyright, if any. But Mr. Appleton replied that the 
house would follow its fixed policy of respecting literary 
property, whether or not the courts did. 

So it came about that he joined his father, William 
H. Appleton, in a struggle that outlasted the father's 
lifetime and that was not ended until the passage of 
the Copyright Act of 1891. In a sense the struggle 
is not yet ended, for the United States anticipated its 
League of Nations attitude by a refusal to join other 
nations in international copyright. Work published in 
the other principal nations is not thereby protected 
in America; work published here is not thereby pro- 
tected abroad; and so, from the authors' and pub- 
lishers' standpoint, something remains to be achieved. 
Nevertheless W. W. Appleton and those associated 
with him in the Publishers' Copyright League — of which 
he was for years the president — saw a great deal ac- 
complished. By printing the book in this country, 
it is now possible to protect English work. William 
H. Appleton had drafted in the 1870's an excellent 



copyright bill, but his son took up the task when suc- 
cess seemed quite hopeless. Nor should it be for- 
gotten that meanwhile, all through the 1850's and 1860's 
and 1870's and 1880's, D. Appleton & Company had 
regularly paid to Huxley and Tyndall and Spencer and 
Disraeli and the rest the sums which were morally 
though not legally their due. 

In publishing, honesty — a moral honesty, a scrupu- 
lous fairness — invariably pays; and perhaps this is 
not a bad means of distinguishing publishing as a pro- 
fession rather than as a commercial enterprise in which 
the higher forms of honorableness may sometimes pay 
and sometimes not. But with William Worthen Apple- 
ton I think that something more than a private con- 
science was influential; for here was a man who was 
equally marked with a public spirit. He was, for 
one thing, a director and chairman of the library com- 
mittee of the New York Public Library; and over a 
long period of years he showed a keen and sustained 
interest and activity in the development of the circula- 
tion branches of the institution. 

In closing this sketch, I may perhaps illustrate the 
change in publishing that took place in Mr. Appleton's 
lifetime by a true story. 

A very few years ago a man of great talent for 
publishing and exceptional experience set up as a pub- 
lisher by himself. 

Of one thing he was certain: he would accept and 
publish only a restricted number of the best books, 



only ones he had personally read and felt enthusiasm 
for. He quarreled not with other tastes, he chose not 
to concern with them so far as his own list went. 

Within two years he had had a striking success with 
one or two books. He has not been in business for 
himself for more than a half dozen years. He still 
publishes a smaller list than many other houses. But it 
is growing, growing. He no longer pretends to have 
read more than a few of the books he brings out. He 
does not pretend to the slightest personal enthusiasm 
over more than a handful on his season's list. 

What has happened? Why, he has created some- 
thing bigger than himself, something that transcends 
his personal capacities and tastes. He is not, cannot 
be, nor could he ever have hoped to be, except in brief 
and fond self-delusion, the whole of his business. 

It would be easy to say that he has made money, 
that he must turn his profits back into his business, 
that he must keep his investment turning over, and must 
increase the rapidity of that turnover if he can. 

Yes. But that is not quite the answer. 

It would be truer, though possibly only part of the 
truth, to say that he made an instrument for the public 
service and that the high use to which he put the thing 
has lifted up, multiplied, broadened and deepened the 
thing itself. In the end he was the instrumentality, the 

William Worthen Appleton saw this and made him- 
self a part of it, for service and for honor. 


Daniel Appleton and His Four Sons 




A hard year, says McMaster in his "History of the 1825 
People of the United States." In 1825 "the unskilled 
laborer in a city was fortunate if he received seventy- 
five cents for twelve hours' work. Hundreds were glad 
to work for thirty-seven cents and even twenty-five cents 
a day in winter." Nevertheless, with unbounded opti- 
mism, Daniel Appleton decided to remove his general 
store to New York. He had started as a drygoods 
merchant about 1813 in Haverhill, Massachusetts, had 
removed to Boston in 1817, and now was seeking even 
wider horizons. What if women worked far into the 
night making shirts for ninety cents a week; what if 
there were intemperance, pilfering and all the other evils 
that go with desperate poverty! New York was now the 
largest and fastest growing city in America. Its popula- 
tion numbered 162,000. Sixteen packets plied regularly 
between the city and Liverpool. Others sailed constantly 
for Havre, Savannah, New Orleans and all parts of the 
world. The New York papers boasted that their city was 
the "mart of nations." Here, indeed, was the place for a 
business man of courage and vision. 

He set up his store in Exchange Place, then opposite 
the Post Office and a fashionable shopping center. The 
general store of that day was scarcely the great depart- 
ment store of the present, but Daniel Appleton installed 
in his store one real "department," a book section which 



in fact occupied nearly one half of the floor space. Here 
came the gentry of the day to browse among the books, 
the choicest offerings of Great Britain, Europe and 
America. Daniel Appleton, a ruddy faced New Eng- 
lander, dressed generally in blue coat with bright but- 
tons, a light buff vest and blue pants and looking not 
unlike Daniel Webster, waited on his customers with 
pleasing dignity. The book business grew so rapidly 
that it completely overshadowed the rest and the general 
store soon became wholly a bookstore. 

1830 Daniel Appleton had had the help of his brother-in-law, 

George Leavitt, a book- 
binder, in developing his 
book business, but in this 
year the two men sep- 
arated, each taking part 
of the stock. Daniel Ap- 
pleton removed his store to 
Clinton Hall in Beekman 
Street, a little farther to 
the northward. His eldest 
son, William Henry Apple- 
ton, an enterprising but 
very young man of sixteen, 
was taken into the business 
which had become not only 
a first rate retail bookstore 
but a wholesale book and 
jobbing business as well. 





Doctrinal, Practical and Experimental, 





Stereotype Edition. 


Title Page, Actual Size of the First 
Book Published by Daniel Appleton. 

1831 The first book bearing the imprint of Daniel Appleton 
made its appearance. It was a tiny volume, only three 
inches square, called "Crumbs From the Master's Table" 
and was made up entirely of verses from the Bible. 
Nevertheless its publication caused the firm more anxiety 



than did the great American Cyclopedia published some 
thirty years later. The little book was favorably re- 
ceived, however, and the same year a companion volume 
called "Gospel Seeds" was issued. 

"A Refuge In Time of Plague and Pestilence" was the 1832 
third Appleton publication and already the firm was 
showing an astonishing astuteness, for this was the year 
that the cholera raged so terribly. The book was only a 

■ . T^w But w« 

A* «f •*»> il !S I with, inswn^ » 
eternal !>' - ! - Ue {<t tto^<» am 

891 «w«SSI f(Jr infcmai I ■ H and 
v & « Sf <>ffi ^ to"!?. Be 

""-| i 5 neS8 > aJBdia 

The First Appleton Book 

small devotional volume and not a medical treatise, but 
it had the right title for the times and it quickly ran 
through several editions. Certain of its ability to market 
its publications, the firm now undertook larger and more 
costly works. "Private Devotion," "A Treasury of 
Knowledge," "Characteristics of Women," Chalmers' 
"Political Economy" and "The Philosophy of Sleep," 
are some of the other books which now appeared in rapid 
succession. "The Dangers of Dining Out" was followed 
by "The Anatomy of Drunkenness" and Hitchcock on 
"Dyspepsy," a worthy trio for any home library. In 
1834 the firm announced that they were stereotyping, 
"in connexion with a house in England," the complete 



works of Jonathan Edwards, in large and distinct type, 
but in one volume only. 

1835 Having arrived at the mature age of twenty-one, William 
Henry Appleton was sent by his father on a business trip 
to Europe. He was cordially received by Thomas Long- 
mans, John Murray and the heads of the great publish- 
ing houses of London who marveled that one so young 
had come so far to transact business. Many of the 
British publishers were accustomed to give dinners to 
the literati and at these Mr. Appleton met many of the 
famous writers of the day. He particularly liked and 
established a friendship with Thomas Moore, the poet. 
He purchased for the American market many interesting 
volumes, but one very expensive work called "The Book 
of Beauty" caused his father great anxiety. Young Mr. 
Appleton had made no mistake, however. The edition 
was quickly disposed of and his father was so delighted 
that he sent word to his son to travel on the Continent for 
three months more. Mr. Appleton visited Leipsic where 
he established relations with Baron Tauchnitz, the great 
Continental publisher. In Paris he met Thackeray, who, 
at twenty-four, was studying painting and had made 
application to illustrate "Pickwick" by the twenty-three- 
year-old Charles Dickens, an offer which was not ac- 
cepted. Thackeray knew his Paris well and introduced 
his new friend to the best restaurants and to many inter- 
esting places and people. 

1837 William Henry Appleton again sailed for England to ar- 
range for American editions of more books. Upon arriv- 
ing in London he learned that a great financial panic had 
occurred in America. Banks and business houses every- 
where had failed. He at once returned to America with- 
out making a single purchase and was warmly com- 
mended by his father for his foresight in not involving 
the house in any debts in such a year. 


trf^-r r < M- — /• 

/ 3?t*?*^y, 4r-*i^>^s^ <ais^O~ frj s^t^C £- 

/Zu*^*' *^ 





*p* ^s 


zs-,s&Z<s s^7* /** 'y 'ttf 

ster'^Z sfz^s'A^) 

Last Page of Partnership Agreement Between Daniel Appleton and His Son, 

William H. Appleton, Made January 27, 1838 



1838 William Henry Appleton was taken into partnership by 
his father and the firm styled D. Appleton & Com- 
pany which name it has since borne. The contract, a 
portion of which is reproduced on page 31, is a business- 
like document in which a stern father shows very clearly 
just what he expects from his eldest son. Once more the 
firm recognized the march northward of the retail busi- 
ness districts of New York and the bookstore was 
removed to 200 Broadway. 

1839 Daniel Appleton while on a trip to Europe decided to 
establish a branch office in London at 16 Little Britain. 
This branch has continued uninterruptedly and is now lo- 
cated at 25 Bedford Street. Most of the Appleton books 
by American authors are to-day published and circulated 
in Great Britain through this London office. 

1840 D. Appleton & Company aroused great excitement 
in the religious world by announcing the publication in 
America of "Tracts for the Times," the books of the so- 
called Tractarian School, known at first as the "Oxford 
Movement" and later as the Catholic or Anglo-Catholic 
Revival. The Tracts included volumes by the Reverend 
Doctors Newman and Manning, who afterward left the 
Episcopal Church and became Roman Catholic Car- 
dinals; John Keble, author of "The Christian Year"; 
E. B. Pusey, and others. 

1841 The earliest Appleton juvenile of which there is any 
record was "The Crofton Boys" by Harriet Martineau, 
which was published in 1841. Many other similar books 
made their appearance in the eighteen forties. Most of 
these were sold at retail at the curious price of 38 cents. 
They were all small volumes and the thought that chil- 
dren's reading should be set in reasonably large clear 
type had not yet been established, for the type in most 



of these books is infinitesimally small. The illustrations 
are steel plates. To realize how far children's books have 
advanced in their physical attractiveness one has only to 
compare these little volumes with the Boy Scouts Year 
Books, the Joy Street Books and other Appleton publi- 
cations of the present day. 

The Third Book Published by Daniel Appleton 

William Worthen Appleton, son of William Henry 1845 
Appleton, and first of the "third generation," was born. 

The exact year in which the firm of Appleton determined 1845 
to publish books in the Spanish language, unfortunately, 
is not a matter of record nor are the incidents known 
which led to the first book. Some time in the 'forties, 

[33 J 


however, a Spanish Department was definitely inaugu- 
rated, the thought being to start with school books for 
which there was evident demand. A new series of readers 
in English had been moderately successful, and it was 
decided to make translations of these. No lists of South 
American booksellers or educators were available, and 
as vessels seldom sailed, a daring plan of distribution 


PUBLISHED BY D. APPLETON &. CO. 200 Broadway. 
Dr. Arnoid'B History of Rome, 2 vole. 8vo. $5. 

do Lectures on Modern History. 12mo. $1 25. 

do Miscellaneous Works, 1 vol.8vo. S2. 

Bp. Burnet's History of the Reformation, 4 vols, illus. $8. 
Kohhaueck's History of Germany, 8vo. $150. 
O'CaJlaghan's Earhr History of New-York, 8vo. $2. 
Taylor'e Manual of History, 8 vo. 800 pages, $2 25. 
Mtebelet'a History of France, vol. 1, ($2. 
Hamilton's Life of Alex. Hamilton. 2 vols. $5 
Southey's Complete Poetical Works, 8vo. S3 50. 
Dante's Poems, translated by Gary, 16mo. Si 50. 
Hemans's Complete Poetical Works, illus'd, 2 vole. $2 50. 
Hooker's Complete Works, 2 vols. 8vo. S5. 
Mazee on Atonement and Sacrifice. 2 vols. $5. 
Guizot'6 History of Civilization, 12mo. Si. 
Bp.Peareon's Exposition of th** Creed, 8vo. S2. 
Bp; Burnet's Exposition of tbe 39 Articles, 8vo. $2.. 
Palmer's Treatise on the Church, 2 vols. 8vo. S5. 
Bums' Scott, and Milton's Poems, each I vol. $1 25pervoL 
Cowper's Complete Poetical Works, 16mo. iliue'd, Si 50. 
Foster's Literary and Miscellaneous Essays, 12mo. Si 25. 
Reid's New English Dictionary, 12mo. $1. 
Carlyle's Life ot Schiller, l2mo. 75 cente. __ 9f 2tis 

An Appleton Newspaper Advertisement of 1846, 
Reproduced in the Exact Size of the Original 

was resorted to. A vessel generally carried a hetero- 
geneous cargo consigned to one man — a commission mer- 
chant. Several cases of books were put aboard, con- 
signed to this man, with a memorandum invoice and 
suggestions as to means of distribution. It was a great 
risk but not a foolhardy one, and the Latin-Americans 
turned out to be scrupulously honest. Many of the coun- 
tries had recently emerged from revolutions; there was 
a thirst for knowledge, and the books sold so rapidly 
that business relations were easily established. Later, 



when Senor Sarmiento was Minister from the Argentine 
Republic to Washington, his interest in educational 
matters led the Appletons to publish many school and 
other books in Spanish. Then, when Sarmiento became 
Minister of Education and afterward President of the 
Argentine, an immense field was assured and Appleton 
school books became as familiar to the children of South 
America as Webster's Speller was to our own grand- 

This year there appeared on the Appleton list two books 1846 
which are still issued and are the oldest publications of 
the house in point of uninterrupted popularity. These 
are the Reverend Jabez Burns' "Sketches and Skeletons of 
Sermons" and "The Pulpit Cyclopedia." For eighty 
years clergymen have turned to these remarkable volumes 
for inspiration and help in preparing their sermons. One 
or more editions of each of them are printed every year. 

An act of kindness to a blind boy in 1847 was the start- 1847 
ing point of a relationship which brought to America 
the great scientists of the Nineteenth Century. One day 
a blind but most energetic young man was led into the 
office of William H. Appleton. He asked to borrow a 
scientific book which the firm had just published. It 
was given him and he was encouraged to come back for 
more. Thus came into the publishing world Edward L. 
Youmans, the most dynamic force in the advancement of 
scientific thought in America. As the friendship ripened 
Youmans became first a literary adviser, then an editor 
for the House of Appleton. He made six trips to Europe 
where he established contacts with and secured for Apple- 
ton's the books of Charles Darwin, Herbert Spencer, 
Thomas H. Huxley, John Tyndall, and the great scien- 
tists and philosophers of Great Britain, France, Ger- 
many and Italy. 



Edward L. Youmans 

1848 His bookstore grown into a large publishing business 

after twenty-three years of solid 
progress, Daniel Appleton retired. 
He was sixty-three years old, not 
an advanced age, to be sure, but 
he had given himself unsparingly 
to the task of building a great 
enterprise and his strength had 
failed him at last. The business 
was reorganized and Daniel Apple- 
ton's four sons, William Henry, 
John A., Daniel Sidney and Samuel 
Francis, formed a partnership to 
carry on, William H. becoming 
President. A fifth son, George S., 
came into the firm at a later period. Upon his retire- 
ment Daniel Appleton made the special request that the 
firm name of D. Appleton & Company never be changed 
and his wish has been carried out to this very day. 

1849 The first of the books of Grace Aguilar, the immensely 
popular Jewish writer, was published this year. This 
was called "Home Influence" and it was quickly followed 
by a second volume called "The Mother's Recompense." 
Curiously enough, Mrs. Wharton has chosen as the name 
for her novel for the Appleton centennial year the same 
title, "The Mother's Recompense." The contrast be- 
tween the simple tale of the eighteen forties and the bril- 
liant performance of the master novelist of our day is 
tremendous. To this day several of the titles are carried 
in the Appleton catalogue and are popular sellers. 

1849 Daniel Appleton died at the age of sixty-four. 

1852 A distant relation may have been the means of starting 
the publication by the House of Appleton of medical text 
books for doctors and students of medicine. This branch 



of the business, which is now one of the bulwarks of the 
organization, began unostentatiously with the appear- 
ance of a book called "Diseases of the Chest" by John 
Appleton Swett. The firm had previously imported medi- 
cal works occasionally from London, but this was the 
first book by an American doctor. It was favorably re- 
ceived and in later years "Swett on the Chest" became an 
amusing but affectionate appellation. Its success encour- 
aged the firm to form connections with the medical lead- 
ers of the period and a gigantic department was soon in 
the making. In a few years appeared Austin Flint's 
important work on "The Physiology of Man" in five 
large volumes and many other treatises by prominent 
American physicians and surgeons. 

The publication of books seventy-five to a hundred years 1853 
ago was a laborious undertaking. Typesetting machines 
and high speed presses had not been invented and the 
thousand and one labor-saving devices of the present 
were unheard of. Their business had now reached such 
proportions that the Appletons found it desirable to in- 
stall their own printing plant in Franklin Street. By 
1868 this plant had assumed such proportions that it 
was necessary to remove it from New York to Williams- 
burgh, Brooklyn. A large plot covering the most of a 
city block was purchased, great buildings erected and 
the most modern equipment of the day installed. The 
pay roll numbered over 600 employees. When it was 
finally determined to sell their various magazines, this 
great plant was sold. Modern methods of book publish- 
ing no longer make it desirable that a publisher maintain 
his own printing plant. Although "the factory," as it 
was known, was sold, a considerable proportion of the 
building was retained as a warehouse and shipping head- 
quarters. This warehouse has only recently been greatly 
enlarged by the addition of several stories. 



The Appleton Factory in Brooklyn, About 1868 

1854 One of the pleasantest and certainly one of the most 
important associations the House of Appleton has ever 
had was that with the poet William Cullen Bryant. 
The relationship seems to have begun in 1854, when the 
Appletons were asked by the poet to bring out two new 
and complete editions of his poems. One of these, at the 
poet's special insistence, was to have no illustrations. 
"There is, I suppose," he wrote to his friend Richard 
Henry Dana, "a class of readers, at least of book-buy- 
ers, who like things of that kind, but the first thing which 
my publisher — it is Appleton — has promised to do is to 
get out a neat edition, in two volumes, without illustra- 
tions." The edition without pictures appeared in the 
summer and a little later an illustrated edition was 
brought out. The best illustrators of the times were em- 
ployed, including some well-known British artists. Both 
editions were welcomed by the critics in the warmest 
terms of praise but Bryant never cared for the illustrated 




:-m^Mmm^ ; : ' 



ilpf^ &. /~^i 



William Cullen Bryant 

edition, complaining that the 
artists did not always catch 
the spirit of the text and that 
the British knew nothing of 
the American landscape. 
Thereafter the closest relations 
were maintained by the Apple- 
tons and Bryant. Editions of 
his poems appeared in almost 
every size of type and style of 
binding. Sumptuous library 
table books were made of 
"The Song of the Sower" and 
"The Story of the Fountain," 
elaborately illustrated with 
wood cuts from sketches made 

by Winslow Homer, Harry Fenn, Hennessy, Hows, Fred- 
ericks and others. When he reached three score and 
ten, Bryant gathered together thirty of his later poems 
including three of the longest he ever wrote, and Apple- 
ton's put these into a volume called "Thirty Poems," in 
honor of his seventieth birthday. In 1872, though he 
was nearing eighty years, he undertook the editorship of 
the gigantic "Picturesque America" and despite the 
arduousness of the task read and corrected every 
word of the proof. In 1876 Appleton's collected all of 
his later poems and brought out a new Complete Edition 
which they called the Roslyn Edition after his summer 
home at Roslyn, Long Island. This edition with sub- 
sequent additions remains on the Appleton list to this 
day. Bryant died in 1878. In 1884 all of his writings 
were collected and Appleton's published a Complete 
Edition of his poetical and prose works in four octavo 
volumes. "The Life and Works of William Cullen 
Bryant," written by his son-in-law, Parke Godwin, was 
published by D. Appleton & Company in 1883. 



1854 Still continuing their retail book business and the pub- 
lishing department having become of first magnitude, 
the firm of D. Appleton & Company purchased the build- 
ing which had been built for the Society Library and 

Interior of the Appleton Retail Bookstore at 346 Broadway, About 1855 

once more removed northward to 346 Broadway. The 
ground floor, 60 by 100, was given over to the retail book- 
store and its fittings were so superb that Gleason's Pic- 
torial for 1854 described this bookstore and the "marble 
palace" of the Stewarts as the wonder places of the 
city. "You will find no such brilliant establishments 
for books," continues the Pictorial, "among the famous 
houses in Oxford Street, Regent Street, or the Boule- 
vards. The ceilings are supported by fourteen Corin- 
thian columns and the ceiling and walls are painted 
in fresco from designs by Nowland and Kearney. The 
book cases are of oak and artistic effect has been 



studied in the interior decorations throughout." The 
paper further marveled that "the whole building is 
heated by steam pipes supplied from a boiler in a vault 
under the street." This building was completely de- 
stroyed by fire in 1867. 

In their earliest years D. Appleton & Company had made 1854 
no special effort to build up a strong line of fiction. 
The first novel on their lists is believed to be "The 
Adventures of Margaret Catchpole" but its original pub- 
lication date is uncertain. Daniel Appleton is said to 
have picked this book himself and to have hoped for 
it a far wider popularity than it probably enjoyed. 
Other titles made their appearance each season and in 
1853 came the first book by a woman writer who was 
one of the best sellers of her day and whose books 
subsequently sold by the hundreds of thousands. This 
book was "Tempest and Sunshine," by Mary J. Holmes. 
Next year came "The English Orphans" and thereafter 
a novel a year for a long period. In 1898 a biographer 
estimated that with the exception of Harriet Beecher 
Stowe no woman writer of America had received so 
large profits from her work. 

Publication begun of "Thirty Years View or a History 1854 
of the Workings of the American Government" by 
Thomas H. Benton who had been U. S. Senator from 
Missouri since 1821 and was one of the foremost figures 
in American politics. The work which was in two huge 
volumes was not completed until 1856. Senator Benton 
then began his gigantic work on "The Debates of 
Congress from 1789 to 1856" the first volume of which 
appeared in 1857 and was subsequently completed in 
fifteen cyclopedic volumes. The "Works and Speeches" 
of John C. Calhoun, in six volumes, was also issued 
about this time. 



Microscopic Views of England. 

By Matt. F. Ward, author of " Letters from Three Continents." 
One neat volume, Kmo. Cloth, $1. 


I. Our Individual Relations with England. 
II. Sixpenny Miracles in England. 

III. The Custom House, 

IV. Rural Scenery. 
V. English Writers on America. 

VI. English Manners. 
VII. Eugiish Devotion to Dinner. 

VIII. English Gentility. 
IX. Origin of the Oh inch of England. 
X. Persecution under the Established Church. 
XI. Present State of the Established Church of England. 
XII. Ileraklry. 

" This is certainly a very clever book, and contains not a little tiiat is 
both true and amusing."— Albany Argus, 

" A vigorous volume, which embraces the fiercest onslaught that we 
have ever read, upon the disposition, 1 manhers, propensities, and social 
institutions of England and her people." — Boston 'Post. 

" This volume abounds w Lit incidents of English life in all its phases, 
which will make it a delightful treat to such readers as relish ahigh- 
i seasoned repast. It is Capital."— Philadelphia American. 

" We confess that we nave read hiB book with much pleasure."— 
Savannah News. 

'; The liook. is spiritedly written, and will find favor with alL"~ 
Daily Globe. , 

*' The author seems unrivalled In keen powers of observation."— 

" Thi» hook js interesting and instructive. There are a great many 
facts, and a great den) of truth in this volume, bearing 6everery';upon 
English Chaiwter and manner*." — N. V. Courier. 

" The author of l/etters from Three Continents' has here given us 
another sixjcimen of his keen, discriminating, and descriptive powers. 
.Mr. Ward hold* an accomplished jwn. Hiflchapter upon rural scenery 
in England is l>eautifully written."— Albany Knickerbocker. 

" This clever book is a tranondous : corinterblast against the ill- 
natured attacks of the Dickens, the Halls, and Trollopes, upon Ameri- 
can faults, and Yankee manners. The work should be read, for it is 
pointed and pvinant."— Troy Post 

" A more thoroughly skinning operation has not fallen tinder our 
observation. If any American, in disgust- atgEnglish ' Uncle Tufuiny- 
Tk ism.' and other recent impertinences, wishes the satisfaction of aretort 
courteous, let him read Mr. Ward's book." — Christian Advocate. 

" Our author is one of the most independent and chivalrous Ameri- 
cans that ever crossed the Atlantic, ana he carries the tame bold critl- 
chan, the same vigilant observation, and the same h;ibit of indepjtfident 
inrestigafkm, Tntothe Louvre, or St. Pauls, that characterised nun In 
his previous, w.ork. We cbrdially commend these ' Microscopic Views.' 
They willaUbrd immense oleasure to all who read them."— Rochester 

" The work Is essentially American. It Is the type, the representa- 
tive, the aggregate outburst of the great American heart ; so well ex- 
pressed, so admirably revealing the sentiments of our whole people 
(with the exception of some ^puling lovers' he speaks of), that it will 
find sympathy in the mind of every true son of the sou. "—New Or- 
leans Paper. 

Just Published by D. AFPLETON k CO., 200 Broadway. 


A Microscopic Advertisement of a Book of Micro- 
scopic Views. Readers of 1853 Must Have Had 
Sharp Eyes and a Keen Interest to Read Such 
Small Type. This Ad. From the Illustrated News 
is Reproduced in the Exact Size of the 



Very early in its history the Appleton firm entered the 1855 
educational field and issued textbooks for elementary 
schools, books for teachers and reference works of all 
kinds. The Mandeville Readers flourished in the fifties. 
The Cornell Geographies, the Perkins Arithmetics, and 
the Quackenbos Histories were seen everywhere in the 
little red school houses of seventy-odd years ago. But 











The Famous Old "Blue-Back' 
Speller of Noah Webster 

0M gggff * 

Many Present Day Grand- 
fathers Will Remember This 

none of these could ever approach in popularity the 
old Webster blue-back Speller which came into the 
Appleton list in 1855. Noah Webster wrote his famous 
speller in 1783 and our great-great-great-grandfathers 
had toiled over it in post-Revolutionary days. As 



it was his only means of livelihood and he needed 
protection from piracy, Webster had visited many states 
and secured the enactment of copyright statutes so that 
he may be justly termed the instigator of American 
copyright protection. With such widespread usage for 
so long a term of years it would seem as if the book 
must have served its purpose. Surely a more modern 
textbook would be wanted by the school authorities of 
1855! The Appletons thought differently, however. 
They threw the whole force of their great selling ma- 
chine into the distribution of this book with the result 
that in the period between 1855 and 1890 the sales 
of "old Blue-Back" reached the astonishing total of 
over 35,000,000 copies. One of the largest presses in 
the Appleton plant ran day after day, year after year, 
on this one book until it was completely worn out. The 
largest sales in any one year were 1,596,000 copies in 
1866, when the close of the Civil War brought a mad 
desire on the part of the people (and particularly the 
newly enfranchised negroes) for elementary education. 
No other book in the English language, with the single 
exception of the Bible, can in any way approach the 
remarkable sales record of the Webster Speller in its 
hundred or more years of popularity. 

1855 Commodore Perry returned after negotiating his famous 
treaty with Japan. This great political coup which 
opened the ports of Shimada and Hakodate to American 
trade and brought us, through the medium of our fast 
clipper ships, into touch with the mysterious Far East, 
was the one great topic of the day. Ever alert for 
the book of timely and historic importance, the firm 
of Appleton persuaded Commodore Perry to let them 
publish "A Narrative of Perry's Expedition to Japan," 
completed from his original notes and journals and 
published with his special authorization. 



Probably the most gigantic of all the Appleton pub- 
lishing enterprises had its inception in 1857. A year 
or two before, William Henry Appleton and Charles 
A. Dana, Editor of the New York Sun, had gone to- 
gether to attend the opening of the Chicago & Rock 
Island Railroad. Both men had been struck with the 
thought that such events should have preservation in 
an informative work. Subsequent conferences were held 
with the result that the Appletons decided to undertake 
the publication of a monu- 
mental American Cyclopedia 
in sixteen volumes under the 
editorship of Mr. Dana and 
George Ripley of the New York 
Tribune. The year 1857 was a 
panic year. The outlook for 
business was tinged with in- 
digo. The financial outlay 
necessary for such a work was 
tremendous. The firm decided 
they could "stand it" however, 
and the first volume appeared 
on schedule time. It was the 
plan to publish a volume every 

few months and to complete the work in six years, and 
this plan was rigidly adhered to despite the interruption 
of business caused by the Civil War. To properly dis- 
tribute this set the Appletons originated the method of 
selling books by means of personal house-to-house can- 
vas. They also invented the plan of selling by subscrip- 
tion installment which has persisted to this day. Tens 
of thousands of sets of the American Cyclopedia were 
sold, and in 1872 the firm decided to issue a completely 
revised edition under the same editorship and to incor- 
porate over six thousand illustrations. This revision 
is said to have cost more than $500,000. Some- 



Charles A. Dana 


thing like three million volumes of the two editions 
were sold. Later the Cyclopedia was still further re- 
vised and its title changed to "Appleton's Universal Cy- 
clopedia and Atlas." In 1910 a smaller Cyclopedia, 
digested from these great works, was published under 
the title of "Appleton's New Practical Cyclopedia" in 
six volumes. It has been frequently revised and is a 
popular work in the Appleton catalog at the present 

1859 The slowly developing interest of the House of Ap- 
pleton in the publication of books by the advanced 
scientific thinkers received great impetus when there 
appeared "The Origin of Species," by Charles Darwin. 
But if American scientists were en- 
thusiastic, the religious press and the 
clergy were not. The storm of criti- 
cism which the publication of the 
Tractarian books aroused in the 
'forties was trifling compared to the 
tempest of indignation and abuse in 
which the Appletons found them- 
selves engulfed when "The Origin of 
Species" appeared. Hundreds of 
threatening letters were received and 
one of the most distinguished 
clergymen in America wrote the head 
of the firm that he would be punished in this world and 
in the world to come. The Appletons took the ground, 
however, that a publisher's imprint is not necessarily 
an endorsement of the viewpoint contained in a book. 
The duty of a publisher involves reasonable watchfulness 
that nothing immoral, indecent or sacrilegious should 
be printed and there the responsibility ends. 

Darwin, probably the greatest of the natural philoso- 
phers of the Victorian era, successfully overrode the 


Charles Darwin 


furious controversy of the early 'sixties. "The Origin 
of Species" was not his introductory work but had 
been written after long meditation and scientific inves- 
tigation. Many other works of great scientific interest 
were written by Darwin, all of which appeared in 
the Appleton list, and in 1871 "The Descent of Man" 
was published. By that time, however, evolutionary 
ideas had progressed so far that the new work, 
although much more defiant of theological prejudice 
than "The Origin of Species," was more tamely re- 

The elaborate, cloth-bound descriptive catalog entitled 1859 
"Own Publications" which D. 


Appleton & Company issued in the Min?on ^ Mar , inal RcfcrencCt gilt __. 
year 1859 (a catalog which no ■ Antique- 

" " " " " " gilt clasp. 

publisher could afford to dis- Brcvier Biblcs . 

tribute free at present manufac- Bre ^ er8 y < ° G L ltmor ° cco giltclaS p. 

hiring prices) reveals a bewilder- « • "' qu °" g»tcias P . 

ing variety of books in all fields. Sma11 Pica Bib,e "' 

* Small Pica, 8vo. Roan marbled. 

Certainly no publisher of that ". '.'. " P ^ m T c % giltclasps . 

• j i i • -i. " " " Gilt " 
period nad a more interesting list 2 g ntcias r3 . 


in range or importance. There smaii pu», 8vo. piain morocco. 

2 gilt clasps. , 

Ertra " 

" " gilt clasp. 

Antique " 

" " gilt clasp. 

English Quarto Bibles. 

2 gilt clasps. 

was a sumptuous edition of nearly 
every major British poet, some- 
times a half dozen editions. Mrs. T * . ^ ePicaBibl «- 

large Pica, 8vo. Gilt morocco. 

Gaskell's "Life of Charlotte " " « a^J 2siltcla3ps - 

'■ " " " " 2 gilt clasps. 

Bronte" topped the biogra- 
phies. A popular fiction library ^"T 7 '? ^-— r*, 
included most of Thackerav. 2giitcia Sp9 . 

J •• Imperial, " Antique " 

Cervantes, Dumas, Scott, De Foe, " « « J.t " 2giltclasp9, 

c «««.«. .. 2 gilt clasps. 

Sterne, all were represented. A thick paper edition. 

. _ -if* English Imperial, 4to. Antique morocco. 

particularly fine edition in quarto " ;; .7 G " lt ;;«« i| «« , »i»- 

of "Reynard the Fox" was de- 

• i j rpi , ,. A Page From the Appleton 

scribed. The great cyclopedias Cata]og of 1859 ^ 



and dictionaries were beginning to make their appearance. 
Buckle's "History of Civilization in England," which one 
New York editor considers the greatest history ever 
written, was there as were Guizot's Histories of Civiliza- 
tion in France and in Europe and the notable Histories 
of Philosophy by Schwegler and Lewes. Many important 
technical books such as Gillespie's "Surveying" and 
Overman's "Metallurgy" had appeared. The Bible 
section listed nearly two hundred styles. There were a 
similar number of school books. The juvenile list in- 
cluded Captain Marryat, Charlotte Yonge, Harriet Mar- 
tineau, Mary Howitt and other favorites of the period. 
In 1859 Appleton's were the distributors of the Webster 
Unabridged Dictionaries published by G. & C. Merriam 
of Springfield and the Webster School Dictionaries of 
Mason Brothers, New York. They also were the offi- 
cial publishers for the Smithsonian Institute of Wash- 

1860 The full force of E. L. Youmans' association with D. 
Appleton & Company began to make itself felt about 
this time. Youmans fairly bounded 
into the President's office one day 
with the news that he had discovered 
a great philosopher. The man 
proved to be Herbert Spencer, whose 
articles Youmans had read and the 
announcement of whose series of 
philosophical works he had seen. A 
correspondence was begun with Spen- 
cer and in 1860 Appleton's published 
"Education — Intellectual, Moral, 
Physical." "The Synthetic Philoso- 
phy" was begun on May 7 of that 
year. In 1862 Youmans went to 

Herbert Spencer 

D. APPLETON & CO., Nos. 443 and 445 BROADWAY 
Publish This Day : 




lvol. 12 mo. Cloth, $1. 

"A chief Object of the present volume is to meet the 

•wants of a large class of readers who have been prevented 

from purchasing the larger -work from its cost, and from 

itu being filled with Notes in Gseek, Latin, French and 

German; it has been thought, also, that 'Bible' Classes' 

would be alike profited and pleased in its use."— [Extract 

from Preface. 

D. A. & Co. have Just^ublished: 
sion . Edited with copious Notes and Appendices, illustrating 
the History and Geography of Herodotus, from the most 
Ancient Sources of information, and embodying the Chief 
Results, Historical and Ethnographical, which have been 
obtained in the progress of Cuneiform and Hieroglyphical 
Discovery. By George Rawlinson, M. A. , assisted by Col. 
Sir Henry Rawlinson and Sir J. G. Wilkinson. With Maps 
and Illustrations. 4 vols. 8vo. Price, $2.50 each. 
of Universal' Knowledge. Edited by George Ripley and 
Charles A. Dana. Yol X. Just ready. To be completed 
in fifteen or Bixteen volumes. Price, in Cloth, $3; 
sheep, $3.60 ; half morocco, $4 each. 


ZOUATES. ByGen.C'er. Translated from the French. 
1 vol., 12 mo. Cloth, $1. 

LTFE OF WILLIAM T. PORTER. By Francis Brinley. 
lvol., 12 mo. $1. 

V. , 
THE EBONY IDOL. By a Lady of New England. 1 
vol., 12mo.; illustrated. $1. 
landCoultas. lvol., 8vo. $1. 
Hear j Lewes. 2 vols. , 12 mo. $2. 
NOTES ON NURSING; What it is, and what it is not. 
By Florence Nightingale. 1 vol., 12 mo. Paper oovers, 
15 cents. Cloth, 25 cents. 

THERE. 1 vol. 12mo. Price $1. 
VOYAGE DOWN THE AMOOR, with a Journey through 
Siberia, and Incidental Notes of Manchoria, Kamtschatka, 
and Japan. By Perry McDonOugh Collins, lvol., 12ms. 
Cloth. $1.25. 

A RUN THROUGH EUROPE. By Erastus C. Benedict. 
1 vol. , 12mo. Price $1.25. 

12mo. 75 cents. 

By 1860 the Type Used in Newspaper Advertisements 
Had Grown Slightly Larger. (Actual Size) 



England to see Spencer and was amazed at the lack of 
interest in his writings. Spencer had himself pub- 
lished 500 copies of "The Principles of Psychology" 
but had sold only 200 copies. The edition of 750 copies 
of "Social Statistics" published eleven years before was 
not yet exhausted and only 200 of his own edition of 

The Appleton Building in the Late 'Fifties 

"Education" had been sold. When one considers that 
in subsequent years Appleton's sold 500,000 copies of 
Spencer's books in America, these figures are illuminat- 
ing. Mr. Youmans gave Spencer vigorous encourage- 
ment and Appleton's made plans to issue the Spencer 
series as fast as written. In 1864 Appleton's published 
"First Principles" and in 1867 "Principles of Biology." 



Though he was obliged in 1866 to announce the discon- 
tinuance of the Synthetic Philosophy for want of funds, 
the Appleton royalties enabled him to resume; and 
in 1896, at the age of seventy-six years, he was able 
to grasp the hand of his secretary and with momentarily 
beaming countenance exclaim, "I have finished the task 
I have lived for." 

Although Appleton's American Cyclopedia, the first 1861 
volume of which appeared in 1857, was not yet com- 
pleted the publishers saw the need for an annual volume 
which would give the history of the preceding years. Ac- 
cordingly in 1861 appeared the first volume of Apple- 
ton's Annual Cyclopedia. This work was sold directly 
to the public by the same force of canvassing agents 
who handled the American Cyclopedia. Over 24,000 
copies of the first volume were sold and the sale con- 
tinued at the rate of twenty thousand copies or more 
annually for a long period of years. The publication 
of the Annual Cyclopedia was discontinued in 1902. 
Later "The American Year Book" was launched under 
the supervision of about forty of the leading learned 
and scientific societies of America and a volume was 
issued annually until 1919. 

A slightly younger writer on evolutionary topics than 1863 
Darwin or Spencer was Thomas H. Huxley. His first 
book, "Man's Place in Nature," appeared about 1863, 
but he may really be said to have become popular 
through his "Lay Sermons and Addresses" which ap- 
peared in 1870. From the moment "Lay Sermons" was 
published, his essays found an eager audience in the 
United States, who appreciated above all things his 
directness and honesty of purpose and the unflinching 
spirit in which he pursued the truth. Huxley was the 
most human of the great triumvirate. In 1876, Huxley 



visited America, largely at the instance of William 
H. Appleton, made many addresses and inspected Ameri- 
can fossil collections. His other books appeared at 
various times during the next twenty years. The first 
edition of his Collected Essays, in nine volumes, was 
published in 1893. The centenary of Huxley's birth is 
celebrated this year. 

1864 In the same year that they issued Spencer's "First Prin- 
ciples," Appleton's also announced the publication of 
Cardinal Newman's "Apologia Pro Vita Sua," the crown- 
ing work of this prince of religious letters, whom 
Gosse, in his "Modern English Literature," refers to as 
"the most striking conception in our literature." 

1865 William Worth en Appleton, grandson of the founder 
of the firm, while in the South chanced upon a copy of 
"Joseph II and His Court," by Louisa Miihlbach, trans- 
lated by Madame de Chaudron of Mobile, printed during 
the war and bound in wall paper by a local printer. It 
proved to be so entertaining that it was immediately 
republished by Appleton's and arrangements made to 
translate her twenty or more other historical novels. 
"Frederick the Great" and "The Merchant of Berlin" 
were the next in order and in the years 1867 and 
1868 the series was completed. The Miihlbach novels 
have been sold by the hundreds of thousands, both 
singly and as sets, and are still remarkably popular. 

1866 "Alice in Wonderland," by Lewis Carroll, is the magic 
title which appeared in the Appleton lists this year. 
It can scarcely be said that the publishers met with 
instantaneous encouragement when they attempted to 
present to the public the first American edition of this 
immortal book. "Alice," to employ a modern publish- 
ing phrase, was for some months a "plug" and the 



junior member of the firm, who had made arrange- 
ments for the book's publication, found himself called 
upon more than once to defend his choice. Then, of 
a sudden, the edition seemed to melt away over night. 
"Alice" had "arrived." It was not until many years 
later that it was discovered that the sheets of the 
Appleton first edition and of the very rare British first 
edition were identical. Any one who has a copy of 
the Appleton 1866 edition of "Alice in Wonderland" 
had best put it under lock and key. 

Charles A. Dana, having completed the editorship of 1866 
Appleton's American Cyclopedia, completely revised and 
greatly enlarged his "Household Book of Poetry," which 
the Appletons first published in 1857. Many antholo- 
gists have sought to improve upon Dana and there are 
now, of course, more modern selections, but "The House- 
hold Book of Poetry" continues on the Appleton list 
and is still going strong in the sixty-eighth year of its 
existence. It is said that Bryant and Whittier, both 
of whom edited similar anthologies, warmly recom- 
mended Dana's book and regarded it in many respects 
superior to their own. 

Two events of great interest to men and boys were the 1867 
publication this year of George Catlin's books, "Life 
Among the Indians" and "Last Rambles Among the 

The publication of books in the Spanish language for 1867 
circulation in the Latin-American countries probably 
reached its greatest height at this time, for the records 
show that nearly fifty Spanish books were issued in 
1867 alone. These included fiction, scientific and tech- 
nical works and school books of all kinds. The pub- 
lication of so large and important a list of books in 
Spanish naturally led to the preparation of a splendid 



In 1867 a Great Fire Completely Wiped Out the Appleton Building 

at 346 Broadway 

group of books for the study of Spanish and Portuguese. 
The Ollendorf and Roemer books already had been 
issued and in 1867 came De Tornos' "Combined Span- 
ish Method." This book has been reprinted 95 times 
and is to this day regarded as one of the finest systems 
for learning the Spanish language which has been 

1868 In the years following the Civil War, D. Appleton & 
Company published a large proportion of the reminis- 
cences and historical works written by leaders in the 
conflict. One of the first of these was the three vol- 
ume Military History of General U. S. Grant, prepared 
and edited by his aide, General Badeau, from the papers 
and with the supervision of General Grant himself. A 
long letter in General Grant's own handwriting now 
in the Appleton archives warmly commends General 
Badeau for his painstaking accuracy and describes 



the care with which Grant himself went over every 
word of this book. "This is a true history," he con- 
cludes, "of the events of which it treats." Other notable 
books by and about Civil War leaders were Admiral 
Porter's Reminiscences, Farragut's Life, by his son, 
the autobiographies of Sherman, Sheridan, Johnson 
and Seward and a whole series of biographies of great 

William Worthen Appleton, son of William Henry 1868 
Appleton, was admitted to partnership in the firm. 

Think of a novelist being satisfied with the sale of 1869 
a thousand copies of his book! Such sales were con- 
sidered excellent when the Appletons evoked the com- 
paratively new Atlantic cable to secure the rights of 
"Lothair," by Benjamin Disraeli, and the Prime Min- 
ister himself had no great ideas about the probable 
market in America for his first novel. Upon the arrival 

<v *~- 


Last Sheet of a Letter From Dis- 
raeli to Appleton's Regarding 


of the manuscript the cautious "reader" advised against 
printing a first edition of over fifteen hundred copies. 
The sales department had no such misgivings, however, 
and orders came pouring in until over 80,000 copies 
were distributed. Disraeli himself was so pleased with 
his vogue that he wrote a cordial letter of thanks to 
the publishers for the successful manner in which the 
book had been brought before the American public. 
Many other novels by Disraeli subsequently appeared 
in the Appleton list. 

1869 The Franco-Prussian War did much for the advance- 
ment of medicine and surgery. The lessons learned by 
the physicians and surgeons at the front were begin- 
ning to make themselves known and word reached the 
Appletons of some important works being under way 
by the leading Germans. An editor promptly visited 
Germany and arrangements were completed for Amer- 
ican translations of many books. The first of these, 
Dr. Felix von Niemeyer's "Textbook of Practical Med- 
icine," appeared in 1869 and was immediately successful. 
The Appleton translation was later published in England 
and had a very large sale there, also. Next followed 
Billroth's "General Surgical Pathology and Therapeu- 
tics." Billroth introduced to the profession the micro- 
scope as an instrument for examining the tissues and 
excretions of the body. Before that time the surgeon 
made his examination with the naked eye. It was an 
Appleton boast of the period that they sold more 
copies of Billroth than there were surgeons in America. 
Then followed the books of Frey, Friedlander, Hueppe, 
Neumann, Schroeder, Steimer, and finally Adolf von 
Strumpell's notable "Textbook of Medicine" which ran 
through revision after revision and had a total sale 
larger than that of any other general textbook with the 
single exception of the great Osier. 



The first of the novels of Christian Reid (Frances C. 1870 
Tiernan), the popular Southern writer, appeared this 
year. This was "Valerie Aylmer." It was followed 
by "Morton House," "Ebb Tide," "Heart of Steel," the 
immensely popular "Land of the Sky," and over a 
dozen others. 

A Group of Appleton Foremen at Their Printing Plant About 1865-70 

An important announcement of this year was the be- 
ginning of the "Library of Wonders" containing volumes 
on Meteors, Storms and Atmospheric Phenomena, Rail- 
ways, Naval Art, Parks and Gardens, Grottos and Cav- 
erns, Electricity, etc. An interesting title in the series 
was a volume, "Balloons," by Camille Flammarion, an 
author who has remained on the Appleton list for fifty- 
five years and whose work on "Haunted Houses" is 
among the most widely discussed scientific books of 


John Tyndall, the noted physicist, whose writings had 1872 
been introduced to American readers by the House of 



Appleton, made a memorable visit to this country and 
delivered an important series of lectures on light. Tyn- 
dall's book, "The Forms of Water," perhaps his best 
written work, was published in 1872; his volumes on 
his studies in the Swiss Alps, on "Heat Considered 
as a Mode of Motion" and "On Radiation" had pre- 
viously appeared. With the assistance of the Appleton 
editors he arranged to give the profits of his American 
tour as a fund "in aid of students who devote them- 
selves to original research." Tyndall's visit culminated 
in a great dinner at Delmonico's on February 4, 1873, 
and the volume of his "Lectures on Light" appeared 
on March 12 of that year. 

1872 To George S. Appleton, one of the four sons of the 
founder, a man of fine artistic taste, credit is given for 
the development of a list of superb art books which 
were the admiration of the book world in the period 
of their first publication. The earliest and in many 
respects the most notable of these was "Picturesque 
America." William Cullen Bryant, the poet, was called 
upon to edit this work and a fortune was spent in mak- 
ing steel engravings of beautiful and picturesque scenes 
in all parts of America. The work was first issued in 
parts, or "portfolios," delivered to subscribers monthly 
and afterward collected and bound. Nearly a million 
copies of "Picturesque America" were sold and its ex- 
traordinary success led to the subsequent publication of 
"Picturesque Europe," edited by Bayard Taylor, and 
"Picturesque Palestine," edited by Henry Codman Pot- 
ter. Each of these enterprises required an initial 
outlay of more than a quarter of a million dollars, 
but all were eventually profitable. The firm then 
brought to the American public, in portfolio form, 
steel engravings of the great art treasures of Europe 
— the galleries of Dresden, Munich, the Louvre, the 


PICTURESQUE AMERICA.— Subscribers' Names. 

JVo Subscription received for less than the entire Work. 


J 3 JLwafr*/?, 

J^jL20^^^7<? .^y^U^jzfe-: S&k ^ 


/^c£,Jsly/r / 



ft % Xt&tEurlL 

/ 7 tr/b /ei u.,, Jfc /iW L 






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^4-i^ j&t*M&&± 


SJ /sTc^ef/- 

/JojjAeL %3* 



Millionaires, Statesmen, Writers, Clergymen and Leading Men of All 

Professions Were Quick to Subscribe to "Picturesque America" as 

May Be Seen From This Subscription Sheet in the Prospectus of 

One of the Appleton Star Salesmen 



Turner Gallery, the Streets and Canals of Venice. There 
were also great works on "The Art of the World," "The 
Poet and Painter," "Recent Ideals of American Art" 
and the list culminated with a magnificent publication 
on "Oriental Ceramic Art" selling for $500.00 a set. 

PICTURESQUE AMERICA.— Subscribers' Names. 

•iVo Subscription received for less than, the entire Work. 










e^b-jtzs*, . 


A & (Arl»,.J 


■jc /r- Cteu&_ 



^, #£**£- 

2J f.S~.0&^*. 

A Leaf From the Prospectus of One of the Salesmen for "Picturesque 
America," Showing the Signatures of Great Poets and Others Who 
Purchased the Work 

1872 Many fine subscription sets of books were published by 
D. Appleton & Company in the thirty years period be- 
tween 1870 and 1900. One of the earliest and also 
one of the finest of these was the complete edition of 
Cooper published in 1872, with illustrations by the fa- 
mous specialist in wood engraving, F. O. C. Darley. 
This set was offered in many styles of binding at prices 
suited to all purses. Other notable sets were the sub- 



scription editions of Conan Doyle and Anthony Hope; 
the historical romances of Madame Muhlbach and George 
Ebers; a Scientific Library, in 60 volumes; The World's 
Great Books, in 40 volumes, selling as high as $300.00 
a set; Masterpieces of American History, in 18 volumes; 
"A Century of French Romance," in 20 volumes; Mas- 
pero's "History of the Ancient Peoples of the East," 
in three quarto volumes with over 1000 illustrations; 
several editions of Shakespeare; the Great Commanders 
of America; and the Literatures of the World. 

The International Scientific Series was inaugurated 1873 
under the editorship of Professor Youmans. The first 
volume in the series was "Forms of Water" by John 
Tyndall; the second, "Physics and Politics" by Walter 
Bagehot. The series subsequently ran to nearly a hun- 
dred volumes and included many of the best books of 
the great physicists, anthropologists, biologists, psychol- 
ogists, philosophers and leaders of scientific thought in 
all fields. Darwin, Spencer, Maudsley, Alexander Bain, 
Huxley, de Quatrefages, Lubbock, Oscar Schmidt, Vig- 
noli, Luys, Sully, were among the contributors. "The 
History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science" 
by John William Draper was the most popular book 
by an American author in the series. It ran through 
50 printings and was translated into nearly every lan- 

After the completion of his service as Secretary of State 1873 
under Lincoln, William H. Seward made a journey 
around the world and recorded his experiences in a 
volume called "Travels Around the World." This work 
proved to be by far the most popular travel book of its 
day and Derby, in his memoirs written in the 'eighties, 
estimated that the publishers paid to Mr. Seward and his 
estate more than $50,000.00 in royalties. Mr. Seward 



also wrote his autobiography which Appleton's published 
and which enjoyed a very large sale. 


IRS5? ■ :: ®>m 

1875 One morning the senior Appleton noticed in the news- 
paper a telegraphic dispatch from St. Louis, stat- 
ing that General William Tecumseh Sherman had com- 
pleted his memoirs. The junior member, Mr. William 
W. Appleton, was at once sent for and ordered to take 
the first train for the West. The young man was some- 
what loath to go; Sherman surely must have made 
his arrangements; it seemed like a waste of energy. But 

he went, nevertheless, and all the 
way out he studied "approaches," 
"middle canvasses," "climaxes" 
and other sales tactics with which 
to ensnare the wily General. 

When he had arrived at head- 
quarters and sent in his card, one 
can imagine his complete surprise 
when the General strode into the 
room and said: "I suppose you 
have come to make arrangements 
to publish my book?" The great 
reputation of the House of Apple- 
ton as publishers of Civil War rec- 
ords had preceded him and 
no preliminaries were necessary. The General was 
very courteous and pleasant, and soon they were en- 
gaged in examining a rough form of contract which 
Mr. Appleton had brought with him. The General also 
had his own form, which they went over. Finally, the 
General told him that he would have to consult his wife 
about the matter, as she always settled such questions 
for him, but, when the next day with Mrs. Sherman 
they examined the contracts, and Mrs. Sherman proposed 
signing the Appleton one, he announced: 


General William T. Sherman 

Facsimile of Letter From General Sherman Regarding a Re- 
vision of His Memoirs 



"No, I have decided to sign my own!" 
The General had reassumed command. 

It hardly seems necessary to record the gigantic suc- 
cess of the Sherman Memoirs. One curious fact stands 
forth, however, which reflects the human side as well 
as the inexorable mind of the great fighter. No argu- 
ments which the Appletons could present could ever 
persuade Sherman to permit his book to be sold by 
subscription. He was shown that the sale probably 
could be increased four-fold by this method, but he 
willingly sacrificed enormous royalties because he said 
he would not run the risk of having a single one of his 
old soldiers cajoled or bullied into the purchase of a 
book for the profit of his old commander. 

After the Sherman autobiography came Sheridan's 
own "Memoirs," and the "Reminiscences" of Sherman's 
great opponent, General Johnston. Then followed a 
long line of biographies, autobiographies, and recol- 
lections of Civil War heroes, the last being "Under the 
Old Flag" by General James Harrison Wilson, the 
only leader in the conflict who is still alive. 

1876 It is hardly likely that there are any fishermen to-day 
whose memories go back seventy-five years. Even the 
grand old man of American fishing, Dr. James A. Hen- 
shall, cannot remember those days. This was the first 
year of publication of John J. Browne's "American 
Angler's Guide." The fisherman of 1876, however, may 
recall the delight with which the anglers of that period 
greeted the publication of the fifth completely revised 
edition of Mr. Browne's book. Halftone and color 
work had not yet arrived and the work therefore would 
hardly measure up with the sumptuous Appleton fishing 
books of to-day, such as David Starr Jordan's "Fishes," 
James A. Henshall's "Book of the Black Bass," George 
Parker Holden's "Streamcraft" or the books of Dixie 



Carroll, 0. W. Smith, Emerson Hough and Leonard 
Hulit. But "The American Angler's Guide" was, never- 
theless, a tremendous success in its day and was the 
forerunner of the great department devoted to books 
for sportsmen which is now an important branch of the 
Appleton business. 

This was the great magazine year in the history of 1880 
the House of Appleton. The Popular Science Monthly 
started years before under the editorship of Dr. You- 

"The Wonderful Tar Baby" 
From "Uncle Remus: His Songs and His Sayings" 

mans was widely circulated. Appleton's Journal, 
a general literary magazine, was most flourishing. The 
New York Medical Journal was a leader in its field. 
Appleton s Art Journal aimed to give its readers the 
latest news of the world of painting and sculpture. And 
in addition Appleton's were now publishing the famous 
old North American Review and the Journal of Specu- 
lative Philosophy. Besides all these magazines, the firm 
issued monthly, "Appleton's Railway Guide," and an- 



nual or semi-annual editions of "A Dictionary of New 
York" and a "Handbook of Winter Resorts" and of 
"Summer Resorts." 

1880 In the late 'seventies there began to appear in the 
Atlanta Constitution some delightful folk lore tales 
which because of their quaint dialect, shrewd wit, and 
genuine flavor of plantation life were widely commented 
upon. In due time some of these were copied by a New 
York newspaper and at once came to the attention of 
D. Appleton & Company. A correspondence was started 
with the author, Joel Chandler Harris, who was on the 
staff of the Constitution. One of the Appleton editors 
was preparing to visit Jefferson Davis at his home in 
Mississippi and arrangements were made for him to stop 
at Atlanta and see Mr. Harris. A contract was quickly 
agreed to and in the month of May, 1880, D. Appleton 
& Company issued "Uncle Remus: His Songs and His 
Sayings." Probably no group of American folk tales 
has ever achieved the popularity of the original "Uncle 
Remus" book. "The Wonderful Tar Baby Story," "How 
Bre'r Rabbit Lost His Tail," "The Awful Fate of Mr. 
Wolf" and the others of that collection have delighted 
two generations of youngsters — and their elders, too. 
And despite its forty-odd years the book shows no 
signs of losing its grip. Two or three large printings 
are invariably sold out every year. The original edi- 
tion of the book did not contain the illustrations by 
A. B. Frost which have played so important a part in 
popularizing the book. These first appeared in the edi- 
tion of 1895. 

1881 In the same year that they published General Sherman's 
Memoirs (1875) D. Appleton & Company arranged with 
Jefferson Davis to publish his book telling the story of 
"The Rise and Fall of the Confederate Government." 
But the President of the Confederacy appears to have 

[ 66 ] 

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The First Page of the Manuscript of McMaster's "History of the People of 

the United States" 



engaged as a secretary, to help him with the work, 
a man of very dilatory tactics, and practically no 
progress was made for some time. After an annoying 
delay of several years, the publishers persuaded Mr. 
Davis to let them send him another and more com- 
petent assistant to dig out of the tremendous mass of 
material Davis had gathered, the facts necessary to the 
writing of the book. One of the most experienced 
editors on the Appleton staff, Judge Tenney, was sent 
to Mr. Davis' home, "Beauvoir," situated midway be- 
tween Mobile and New Orleans, where the work was 
completed, and finally, in June of 1881, the book was 
published. It consisted of two large, thick, octavo 
volumes, which had to be sold at a high price, but 
the sale, nevertheless, reached many thousands of copies. 
Sectional feeling was still rampant and the House of 
Appleton was once more a target for hostile criticism. 
Davis' work, however, was not the only book by a 
Southern leader published by Appleton's. The personal 
memoirs of General Sherman's great opponent, General 
Joseph E. Johnston, were issued, as were four books 
relating to General Robert E. Lee, and many other 
similar narratives. 

1883 In the summer of 1881 there came into the Appleton 
office, through the regular mail, a voluminous manu- 
script written entirely in long hand. With it came a 
letter from the author stating that it was the first vol- 
ume of "A History of the People of the United States, 
from the Revolution to the Civil War," which he hoped 
to complete in six volumes. Although the first reports 
of the manuscript readers were generally unfavorable, 
the senior member of the firm took the manuscript home 
to have a look at it himself. He found it fascinating, 
so much so indeed that he called the members of the 
family together and insisted upon reading it aloud. 



They came reluctantly but in a very short time sat 

spellbound and the reading continued for several hours. 
The next day word was sent to the 
author to come in and sign a contract. 
He proved to be John Bach McMaster, 
an instructor in civil engineering at 
Princeton. The volume was pub- 
lished in 1883. Soon after its appear- 
ance Mr. Appleton met Dana of The 
Sun and asked him if he had read it. 
"Read it! Why I have read nothing 
else since I began it!" retorted Dana. 
Thirty-two years later the eighth and 
final volume of this remarkable his- 
tory was completed by John Bach 
McMaster, Professor of History at the 

University of Pennsylvania. It has taken its place 

among the great works of all time. 


'*: . :.•'$$ 

f <«*- JISjJI 




ftji " ^^jiiii*'' 


i i 





^^^m$ : ^Mt 


John Bach McMaster 

The House of Appleton was very young when George 1884 
Bancroft published the first volume of his "History 
of the United States from the Discovery of the Con- 
tinent." The book which was 
brought out in Boston in 1834 
covered only a small part of 
American colonial history. It 
was Bancroft's original inten- 
tion to continue the history to 
the year 1830; but he was very 
busily engaged in politics and 
government affairs and he found 
it difficult to write. As Secre- 
tary of the Navy he founded the 
Naval Academy at Annapolis; 
as Minister to Great Britain and 
to Germany he did much to pro- 


George Bancroft 


mote international relations. But these activities nat- 
urally slowed up the writing of the work; and Bancroft 
was so painstaking in the accumulation and study of his 
material that by 1874, though ten volumes had ap- 
peared, he had brought the history down only to the 
beginning of the Revolution. He then decided to con- 
clude the work at that point but to completely revise it 
and arrange it for six volumes. In 1884 Appleton's pub- 
lished this new edition, the last revision which the his- 
torian was able to make. Two volumes which were 
originally intended to be part of the History were sep- 
arately issued in 1884 under the title "History of the 
Formation of the Constitution of the United States." 
Even during his lifetime historians had no hesitation in 
ranking Bancroft's History as the foremost in its field. 
Edward Everett wrote, "It will unquestionably forever 
be regarded both as an American and as an English 
classic," and W. H. Prescott concluded, "His colonial 
history establishes his title to a place among the great 
historical writers of the age." 

1885 In the "elegant 'eighties" much thought was being given 
to etiquette and some of the guides to good manners 
enjoyed sales fully as large as the cleverly exploited 
etiquette books of the present day. New York's "Four 
Hundred" had reached its hey-day and apparently every- 
one else in the country had hopes of some day finding 
themselves within that exclusive circle and were deter- 
mined to be prepared. In the Appleton list appeared 
many volumes, among them "Social Etiquette of New 
York," Mrs. Buchanan's "A Debutante in New York 
Society," "Hints About Men's Dress," "Good Form in 
England," "Don't, a Boudoir Manual," "The Complete 
Bachelor," and many other similar volumes. 

1886 "The International Education Series," under the general 
editorship of William Torrey Harris, another gigantic 

[ 70 ] 


Appleton enterprise, was inaugurated this year. No one 
in America could have been better fitted to be the ed- 
itor of this series than Dr. Harris and the remarkable 
excellence of the entire sixty-odd volumes which sub- 
sequently followed is a tribute to his genius. An edu- 
cator all his life, Dr. Harris, shortly after beginning 
the series, was called to be United States Commissioner 
of Education, a post which he held conspicuously for 
about twenty years. Nearly every great educational 
leader of Europe and America contributed a volume 
to the International Education Series. There were new 
and distinguished translations of Froebel, Preyer, Rous- 
seau, Rosenkranz, Pestalozzi, Compayre, Platter and 
other Continental authorities; and important new works 
by Dr. Harris himself, Painter, Adler, Blow, Baldwin, 
Greenwood, Parker, Judd and other advanced thinkers. 
It is not too much to say that the International Educa- 
tion Series was for years the standard professional 
library for teachers in America and still is a vigorous 

Two of the most successful surgical works ever pub- 1886 
lished by the House of Appleton appeared in 1886 and 
1887. The first of these was a "Manual of Operative 
Surgery," by Joseph D. Bryant, who was Professor of 
Surgery at Bellevue Medical College and personal phy- 
sician to President Cleveland. The second was "A Text- 
book of Surgery," by Dr. John A. Wyeth, President of 
the New York Polyclinic. For several years, nearly 
every medical order received by the firm contained one 
of these two works among the items, and at one time 
every medical college in America is said to have used 
one or the other as a textbook. A few years later 
Tillman's Surgery duplicated the success of these earlier 
volumes. There has since been a steady stream of great 
surgical publications issuing from the Appleton presses, 



the most recent being the series known as "Appleton's 
Surgical Monographs," to be completed in fifteen vol- 

1886 In keeping with their great general Cyclopedias and an- 
nuals, Appleton's, in 1886, launched the publication 
of the "Cyclopedia of American Biography." The work 
appeared originally in six volumes and a seventh volume 
was added later. The editors-in-chief were General 
James Grant Wilson, President of the New York Genea- 
logical and Biographical Society, and John Fiske, the 
historian. This work, which aimed to include both 
North and South Americans, will always remain a 
standard source book of American individual achieve- 
ment. There have been no new editions of the Cyclo- 
pedia since 1900 and the work is now out of print, 
although there have been frequent stories circulated 
in recent years regarding new revisions. 

There have been many other voluminous and valuable 
cyclopedias in the Appleton list, such as the "Cyclopedia 
of Applied Mechanics," "Cyclopedia of Mechanical 
Drawing," "Manual of Chemical Technology," "Cyclo- 
pedia of Practical Receipts," and "Cyclopedia of Ameri- 
can Government"; and a long list of dictionaries, includ- 
ing Smith's "Dictionary of the Bible," "Dictionary of 
Terms and Quotations," "Mercantile Dictionary," 
"Classical Dictionary," "Art Dictionary," and many for- 
eign language dictionaries. 

1888 The first medical book to be illustrated with pictures of 
actual operations was "Aseptic and Antiseptic Surgery" 
by Arpad G. Gerster. Up to this time the laborious 
processes of making wood cuts and steel engravings 
had made the accurate illustrating of medical and sur- 
gical works most difficult and it was small wonder 
that most such books carried no pictures at all. Draw- 



ings showing surgical processes were used in many 
works, but in Gerster Appleton's struck another new 
note and showed the actual pictures of the operating 
room and table. Needless to say, this revolutionary 
work scored a notable success. 









H Storp ol amcrican Xttc 



Title Pages of the First Editions of Two Famous Books 

A great fiction library was inaugurated under the name 1888 
of Appleton's Town and Country Library. The first vol- 
ume was "The Steel Hammer" by Louis Ulbach and the 
second, "Eve" by S. Baring Gould. Very soon books 
by Lucas Malet, Hall Caine, Justin McCarthy, Maxwell 
Gray, W. Clark Russell, Edna Lyall, Grant Allen and 
other leading novelists of the day appeared. Subse- 
quently many young writers who have since become 
leaders were introduced to the American public in the 



Town and Country editions. In the 312 volumes which 
comprised the complete library were to be found the 
names of Joseph Conrad, W. J. Locke, Leonard Mer- 
rick, E. F. Benson, Edgerton Castle, George Gissing, 
Anthony Hope, Gilbert Parker, J. C. Snaith, Horace 
Annesley Vachell, Joseph A. Altsheler, and Stewart 
Edward White. Each book was published in two edi- 
tions, in paper at fifty cents and in cloth at one 
dollar, and new titles appeared monthly for a long term 
of years. Many fiction readers placed annual subscrip- 
tions with their booksellers, receiving a new book 
monthly, very much as magazines are circulated to-day. 

1890 Men of to-day will remember with pleasure the many 
splendid stories for boys which began to make their ap- 
pearance in the Appleton lists in the early 'nineties. 
Most of these books are still as popular to-day with boy 
readers as they were with their fathers thirty or more 
years ago. In 1890 and the years immediately fol- 
lowing appeared Molly Elliott Seawell's "Little Jarvis," 
now in its 35th edition; W. 0. Stoddard's "Little 
Smoke," a tale of the Sioux; Mrs. Cotes' "Story of 
Sonny Sahib," Octave Thanet's "We All," Mrs. Seelye's 
"Story of Columbus," and a whole string of historical 
stories by Hezekiah Butterworth. 

1892 A young teacher of medicine at the University of Penn- 
sylvania was attracting a great deal of favorable atten- 
tion. His fame in the medical profession was spreading 
rapidly and he seemed an ideal man to prepare a 
much needed textbook on "The Principles and Practice 
of Medicine." The Appleton editors called upon him 
on several occasions and outlined the plan; but there 
seemed to be so many other things of importance to 
Dr. William Osier that he found no time to write the 
"Practice of Medicine" which the Appletons wanted. 



The medical editor despaired of ever getting the book; 
but the head of the firm persisted. "Go back and see 
him, again and again," he instructed 
the editor, with the result in 1892 Dr. 
Osier finally produced what has be- 
come the bible of the English-speak- 
ing medical profession and is regarded 
by many as the greatest medical book 
of all time. During his lifetime Dr. 
Osier completely rewrote his book 
nine times and since his death this 
work has been faithfully carried on 
by his former colleague, Dr. Macrae. 
Osier's "Practice of Medicine" was 

and is now one of the most widely 

, ii.i Tiii Sir William Osier, Bart., M.D. 

used textbooks in the medical schools 

of America and Great Britain. Hundreds of thousands 

of copies have been sold and it has been translated into 

nearly every major tongue. It was in no small measure 

due to the remarkable qualities of the "Practice" that 

led eventually to Dr. Osier's being called to the chair of 

Regius Professor of Medicine at Oxford University, 

probably the highest position in the medical world. 

"Many Inventions," Rudyard Kipling's volume of short 1893 
stories, including fourteen of his best tales, appeared 
on the Appleton list and in 1896 Appleton's published 
Kipling's book of poems, "The Seven Seas." 

A notable year for the mothers of America. There 1894 
appeared in the Appleton list a little catechism called 
"The Care and Feeding of Children," written by a phy- 
sician of New York who was attracting nation-wide 
attention among doctors as a specialist in pediatrics, 
L. Emmett Holt. Literally hundreds of thousands of 
American babies have since been brought up on this 



book and the babies of thirty years ago now grown 
to be mothers are raising their infants according to its 
formulas. Although thirty-one years have elapsed since 
its first publication Dr. Holt has kept his book always 
up to date. It has been completely 
revised and enlarged twelve times. 
Starting simply as a guide for moth- 
ers of small infants, its range has 
been increased to cover children up 
to five or six years. Every year the 
sales of Holt's "Care and Feeding of 
Children" exceed those of most of 
the so-called "best seller" novels of 
the season. It has been translated 
into many languages. It must be re- 
garded as one of the greatest con- 
tributions to child welfare of mod- 
ern times. Many other notable vol- 
umes on child training, both from the 
physical and mental standpoints, have been published 
by D. Appleton & Company. Angelo Patri's "Child 
Training" is one of these; others are Felix Adler's "The 
Moral Instruction of Children," Dr. Coolidge's "The 
Home Care of Sick Children," Dr. Emerson's "Nutri- 
tion and Growth in Children," Baldwin & Stecher's "The 
Psychology of the Preschool Child." 

L. Emmett Holt, M.D. 

1894 There is a widely prevalent belief, especially among those 
who have never missed a meal, that an author to do 
his best work must be starving. This of course is as 
untrue as it is unjust. The best work by writers of mod- 
ern times is turned out by those who dine regularly 
and work steadily and systematically at their profession. 
The work of the penniless writer is usually inferior be- 
cause of the dire necessity of getting into print — and 
so into money — as quickly as possible. One author, 



however, who managed to turn out a masterpiece while 
suffering the pangs of hunger was Stephen Crane. When 
Crane wrote "The Red Badge of Courage" he was as 
poverty stricken as it is possible to be. It was an 
effort, he said afterwards, "born 
of pain, despair almost." He 
showed the first half of the 
manuscript to Hamlin Garland; 
he was too poor to pay for typ- 
ing the balance. Mr. Garland 
helped him out and recom- 
mended him to D. Appleton & 
Company who were then pub- 
lishing Mr. Garland's novels. 
The Appleton editors readily 
agreed with Mr. Garland that it 
was a remarkable story and 
promptly published it. When it 
appeared in 1894 it took the 
public by storm; moreover, it 

had so great a success in England that Crane de- 
cided to go to London to live. Other books appeared 
in the years immediately following — "Maggie" which 
Crane had previously published himself without suc- 
cess, "The Third Violet," and "The Little Regiment." 
Money rolled in upon the emaciated, hollow-cheeked 
young man; but he could never quite recover from the 
years of privation and in 1900 he was dead. "The 
Red Badge of Courage" is, of course, one of the fiction 
classics of the Appleton list. There are many readers 
who insist that it comes as near to being the great 
American novel as anything that has been written. 

Stephen Crane 

The first of the important bird books by Dr. Frank 1895 
M. Chapman, now recognized as the foremost ornitholog- 
ical authority in America, was the "Handbook of Birds 



of Eastern North America," published in 1895. Two 
years later appeared "Bird Life" and subsequently both 
books were revised to include not only the most com- 
plete information but a large number of colored plates 
by Fuertes and Thompson Seton. Many other study and 
reference books by Dr. Chapman appeared, the latest 
being the handy little volume "What Bird Is That?" in 
which the birds are shown not only in their natural 
colors but in their relative sizes. Dr. Chapman re- 
corded many of his remarkable adventures in a travel 
volume called "Camps and Cruises of an Ornithologist" 
and in "Bird Studies with a Camera." 

1896 One of the most remarkable fiction seasons in the 
whole hundred years of Appleton publishing was 1896. 
A bewildering array of names is to be found in the 
records for this twelvemonth. Conan Doyle's "Exploits 
of Brigadier Gerard," Joseph Con- 
rad's "The Outcast of the Islands," 
Felix Gras' "The Reds of the Midi," 
Stephen Crane's "Maggie" and "The 
Little Regiment," Harold Frederic's 
"March Hares," J. C. Snaith's "Mis- 
tress Dorothy Marvin," S. R. 
Crockett's "Cleg Kelly" and novels 
by George Ebers, Justin McCarthy, 
Robert Hichens, Christian Reid, Mrs. 
Everard Cotes and others followed 
one another in rapid succession. 
Probably the best seller of this sea- 
son was Gilbert Parker's splendid novel, "The Seats of 
the Mighty," a great favorite still among American his- 
torical romances. Curiously enough, Hall Caine, whose 
novels stood at the top of Appleton fiction successes of 
this period, did not have a book in 1896 but the next 
year the Appletons published his "The Christian," one 

[ 78 ] 

HK , ■ j9n 


Hall Caine 


of the most widely read novels of its decade. In "The 
Eternal City" Hall Caine duplicated the success of the 
earlier book. Both these novels have been translated 
into many languages. 

Fiction, however, did not wholly dominate the Appleton 1896 
list. "A History of the Warfare of Science with The- 
ology in Christendom," by President Andrew D. White 
of Cornell University, stirred the thinking world and 
aroused tremendous controversy. Fundamentalists and 
modernists now engaged in the same warfare would do 
well to read Dr. White's History which may still be 
found on the Appleton list. More recent discussions 
of the subject are Dr. Shailer Mathews' "Contribu- 
tions of Science to Religion" and Dr. Joseph A. Leigh- 
ton's "Religion and the Mind of Today." 

Sometimes it is a great advantage to have a firm 1898 
name beginning with the letter A; not so at others. 
Perhaps in submitting his manu- 
script, Edward N. Westcott be- 
gan at the bottom of the list of 
publishers. At all events "David 
Harum" had been the rounds, and 
the author was on the verge of 
despair when it was offered to the 
Appletons. Its qualities were 
quickly recognized, but the manu- 
script was over-long and con- 
tained many tedious passages 
which needed remodeling or com- 
plete elimination. At that time 
the unfortunate author was in the 

last stages of a grave illness. He finally agreed to 
and made the changes suggested, but before the book 
could be published he died. He has left a lasting 


The Horse Trade From 
"David Harum" 


monument to his genius, however, and a property of 
untold value to his family. "David Harum" has be- 
come a household word. The sales of "David Harum" 
are well on toward 2,000,000 copies. In honor of the 
twenty-fifth birthday of the book, in 1923, Appleton's 
issued a sumptuous anniversary edition which gave 
new impetus to the novel and brought its amusing and 
characteristically American story to the new generation 
of book readers. 

1899 The boy of to-day, reading with unalloyed delight "The 
Halfback," by Ralph Henry Barbour, probably will be 
amazed to learn that the book first appeared twenty- 
six years ago. It was Mr. Barbour's first book but 
it did not have to wait long for popular recognition 
in the boy world. "The Halfback" was and still is the 
real thing in school stories. When "For the Honor of 
the School" appeared next year Mr. Barbour was started 
on an upward career which has led to such preeminence 
that he is constantly referred to by the reviewers as 
the boys' writer King. There are forty-two books by 
Barbour on the Appleton list at present, all of them 
popular. Another writer of school stories whose books 
rival those of Barbour in popularity is William Hey- 
liger. His first book, "Bartley, Freshman Pitcher," ap- 
peared in 1911. In his earlier books Mr. Heyliger 
confined himself chiefly to the athletic side of school 
life. Later he became tremendously interested in the 
serious problems of school life. He has travelled ex- 
tensively over the United States studying school life. 
His story "High Benton" is a forceful appeal to boys 
to continue from grammar school through high school 
and college. It has been endorsed by teachers, adopted 
for reading circles and the author has actually re- 
ceived thousands of letters from boys whose school 
careers have been lengthened through its influence. 



Nearly twenty-five years ago a series of practical books 1902 
for business men was started by D. Appleton & Com- 
pany. There had been, of course, many books written 
about business affairs before that date, but these, for 
the most part, were historical or theoretical in treat- 
ment. The Appleton series aimed to aid business men 
through the systematic presentation of actual experience 
and facts. The first volumes included such titles as 
Pratt's "Work of Wall Street," Mead's "Trust Finance," 
Johnson's "American Railway Transportation," Fiske's 
"Modern Bank" and Calkins and Holden's "Modern Ad- 
vertising." At first great difficulty was experienced in 
persuading business men that they could get any prac- 
tical help from books. The general excellence of these 
books eventually made itself known and large sales 
resulted. All of the above volumes are still on the 
Appleton list in revised editions or have been super- 
seded by new volumes on the same subjects by the same 
authors. To-day the business book section contains 
nearly a hundred and fifty volumes and covers almost 
every branch of business, finance and commerce. 

How often is a publisher seized with a fear that he 1904 
may have made a mistake in contracting to publish 
a book? Perhaps the situation arises more often than 
many publishing houses would be willing to admit. The 
Appletons have no hesitation in saying that they were 
"disturbed," to say the least, upon the arrival of the 
gigantic manuscript which constituted the work on 
"Adolescence," written by the psychologist, G. Stanley 
Hall. Not that they had the slightest doubt of the 
merits of Dr. Hall's monumental undertaking. Their 
fears were predicated upon the thought that there might 
not be enough people interested in so costly a work 
on so special a subject to produce enough sales to 
get back the tremendous outlay involved. Many times 



G. Stanley Hall 

in the history of publishing has a great work literally 
had to fight its way to recognition. The book was put 
through the presses with considerable apprehension, and 

plans were studied to give it the 
widest possible publicity upon its 
appearance, so that all possible 
sales could be realized. When the 
work finally appeared the pub- 
lishers' minds were soon set at 
ease. "Adolescence" became the 
book of the hour in the thoughtful 
circles; the original "hunch" that 
it was an epochal achievement — a 
fact which had been lost sight of 
when the cost sheets began to 
appear — was quickly confirmed. 
Since the day of its publication 
"Adolescence" has been the one 
great source book on the psychology of youth. Dr. 
Hall followed this work with a dozen or more important 
works, all of which bear the Appleton imprint. When, 
a half dozen years later, he produced his large manu- 
script on "Educational Problems," a far less important 
work than "Adolescence" but quite as costly to manu- 
facture, Appleton's undertook it without wincing and 
with no subsequent regrets. The important works on 
Child Training, on Morale, on Senescence, and his Life 
of Jesus from the psychological standpoint did much to 
increase Dr. Hall's reputation as one of America's great- 
est psychologists. Just before he died last year, D. 
Appleton & Company published his "Life and Confes- 
sions," a human document of lasting value. 

1906 Probably the most widely discussed publication of the 
year 1906, at least by the literati, was George Moore's 
book of "exquisitely delicate indelicacies (as Life 
phrased it) , "Memoirs of My Dead Life." Not only was 



George Moore 

the literary world set agog by the charm of the book it- 
self but by the controversy which had arisen between 
Mr. Moore and his publishers over certain passages in 
two of the chapters. The publishers 
thought these few sentences should 
be omitted; Mr. Moore felt the other 
way about it. Finally he agreed to 
their omission provided he could ex- 
plain his position in a foreword. 
Judged by standards of the present 
day, the censored phrases probably 
would not be considered dangerous. 
But the dispute was well worth while, 
if for no other reason than that it 
gave Moore the opportunity to write 
his famous "Apologia Pro Scriptis 
Meis" in which he airs his views on censorship, on vigi- 
lance societies, and on the Puritanical definition of 
morality. This Apologia, which the Appletons have 
continued to print as a foreword to the "Memoirs," is 
as delightful as the book itself. George Moore first came 
into the Appleton list in 1898 when his novel "Evelyn 
Innes" was published. "The Lake" appeared in 1905, 
the "Memoirs" in 1906, and in 1911 the first volume of 
his great trilogy, "Hail and Farewell." This brilliant, 
audacious performance, a sort of literary omnibus defy- 
ing classification with ordinary "confessions," auto- 
biographies or journals, securely entrenched Moore in 
his position as the greatest living Irish writer. The 
author has just completed a revision of this work which 
will be published as soon as it can be got ready. 

"The Mystery of Choice" is the little known title of the 1906 
first book by an internationally famous American nov- 
elist appearing on the Appleton list. The author was 
Robert W. Chambers and the year of publication was 

[83] ' 


1897. The Chambers name disappeared from the Ap- 
pleton catalog for a few years following but came 
back again in 1906, when that delicious satire, "Iole," 
was published. In 1906 came "The Fighting Chance," 
the first of the long list of novels of high society life 
which made the name of Chambers as widely known 
as that of any other writer of the day. "The Fighting 
Chance" sold by the hundreds of thousands and many 
of the volumes that followed, "The Danger Mark," "The 
Firing Line," "The Common Law," and others, were 
nearly as successful. 

In the same period that the novels of Mr. Chambers 
were sweeping the country another striking personal- 
ity was proselyted to the House of Appleton. He 
was David Graham Phillips, the most serious, most 
vigorous, most earnest novelist of his day. Finding 
first his themes in the battles and tragedies of the 
business world, Phillips soon turned to the center of 
American life, the home, to the relations of husband 
and wife and to the great domestic and social prob- 
lems. In quick succession came "Old Wives for New," 
"The Hungry Heart," "The Husband's Story," "The 
Price She Paid" and other successes. So true were 
his pictures, so characteristic of the average home, 
that thousands of people found themselves mirrored in 
his stories. His amazing understanding and delineation 
of common domestic problems finally cost him his life, 
for he was shot and killed by a demented reader with 
an imaginary grievance. Phillips was so far ahead of 
the times that his greatest novel, "Susan Lenox, Her 
Fall and Rise," upon which he labored in sober earnest 
for ten years, was not issued for six years after his death. 

1907 The greatest of all actresses, Sarah Bernhardt, gave 
her memoirs to D. Appleton & Company and the vol- 
ume called "Memories of My Life" made its appearance 




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Sarah Bernhardt 

in 1907. When the book was first announced a rumor 
was circulated that the memoirs might prove to be the 
work of a clever press agent. The Appletons were able 
quickly to spike this canard, 
however, for the head of the 
house, in calling upon Madame 
Bernhardt at her Paris home, had 
several times been taken into her 
study and had gone over with her 
in detail a great stack of note- 
books in which she had herself 
written out in long hand every 
word of her life story. 

Many notable autobiographies 
and volumes of reminiscence have 
appeared on the Appleton lists. 
Spencer and Huxley wrote their 

autobiographies; Darwin's Life and Letters was written 
by his son. The reminiscences of the Civil War leaders 
are described elsewhere. Admirals Evans and Schley 
wrote their stories after the Spanish-American War. 
Herndon and Weik's "Life of Lincoln" and Admiral 
Mahan's "Life of Farragut" are outstanding biographies. 
Whole series of biographies of great military and naval 
leaders, explorers and pioneers have been issued. From 
Waliszewski's "Romance of an Empress" (Catherine the 
Great) to Trowbridge's recent life of Alexandra, there 
have been many books on the world's rulers. From 
France came many volumes on Napoleon, including 
Madame Junot's intimate memoirs; Jules Breton's "Life 
of an Artist," and in recent years the widely discussed 
"Memoirs of the Empress Eugenie" by Comte Fleury. 
George Moore, Brand Whitlock and Hall Caine have 
written life stories. Two great opera singers, Calve and 
Jeritza, have recently completed their reminiscences. The 
list is too long even to include all of the most notable. 



1907 Probably the most popular writer for boys — and their 
daddies, too — of modern times was Joseph A. Altsheler. 
Altsheler is called the Twentieth Century Cooper. Per- 
haps the reason that his Indian stories appeal to the youth 
of to-day is that they are bristling with action and yet 
are historically correct in every detail. "The Young 
Trailers" was Mr. Altsheler's first book for boys and it 
appeared in 1907. He had already written several popu- 
lar historical romances, "The Sun of Saratoga" and "A 
Soldier of Manhattan" among them, but as these were 
intended for older readers the love story was predomi- 
nant. "The Young Trailers," a tale of the Kentucky 
settlements in Colonial days, was such a rousing success 
that Altsheler followed it with seven other tales in which 
the same characters appeared. Thereafter came many 
other series covering various periods of American history 
and at the time of his sudden death in 1919 he had com- 
pleted thirty-three boys' books, dealing with every phase 
of America's historical development from the French and 
Indian War to the World War. Since his death Alt- 
sheler's popularity has if anything increased. A new 
printing, sometimes two or three printings, of every one 
of his stories is required each year. 

1908 Who, among modern writers, has done more to keep the 
novel reading world in constant good humor than the 
cheerful Joseph C. Lincoln of Cape Cod? Mr. Lin- 
coln's record is a truly amazing one and clearly attests 
the affectionate esteem in which a vast and ever increas- 
ing audience hold him and his stories. In 1908 Apple- 
ton's published "Cy Whittaker's Place"; since then 
nineteen new books by Lincoln have appeared in the 
Appleton list and five older titles have been taken over. 
Most fiction writers have their ups and downs, a great 
success followed by an indifferent one. It can truth- 
fully be said of Lincoln, however, that from "Cy Whit- 



taker's Place" to his most recent "Rugged Water" every 
novel bearing his name has found a wider audience than 
its predecessor. His books go on the best-seller lists 
on the day of publication and remain there for months. 
"A public benefactor," critics, writers, librarians, book- 
sellers and fiction readers generally have termed Joseph 
C. Lincoln, "a novelist who never disappoints." 

One of the most important years in the entire Appleton 1912 
century was this, for it marked the first appearance 
as an Appleton author of the foremost American woman 
novelist, Edith Wharton. "The Reef," of course, was the 
literary masterpiece of its season. It was 
followed in 1917 by "Summer," a short 
novel of New England. During the war 
years Mrs. Wharton was so actively en- 
gaged in relief work in Paris that she 
found little opportunity to write. Her 
little novel, "The Marne," however, made 
a profound impression in 1918, and her 
book, "French Ways and Their Meaning," 
interpreted for Americans the people whom 
the author regards as the most human of 
the human race. In 1920 came "The Age 
of Innocence," one of the really great 
novels of American life and the winner, as is hereafter 
noted, of the Pulitzer Prize as the best novel of its year. 
Not only was "The Age of Innocence" an artistic triumph 
but it achieved a popular sale seldom equalled by a book 
of such high literary quality. In 1922 came "The 
Glimpses of the Moon," and 1924 Mrs. Wharton again 
struck a new note when there were published on one day 
four separate short novels, under the title of "Old New 
York." Perhaps no one but Mrs. Wharton could have 
carried to success so daring an innovation as the pub- 
lication of four novels at one time. So unusual were all 


Edith Wharton 


of these both as a group and as separate achievements, 
that the set has already passed through many editions and 
is expected to be in great demand for months to come. 

1913 One important contributing factor to the growth of D. 
Appleton & Company as publishers of medical books, 
has been the ability of its editors to sense well in advance 
the trend of scientific thought. Medical books have to be 
contracted for years in advance of 
their publication, for they are gener- 
ally voluminous tomes requiring 
enormous labor and research in the 
writing. It is necessary, therefore, 
to determine far ahead what will be 
the accepted methods of to-morrow 
and what workers of to-day will be- 
come the leaders, and to make ar- 
rangements accordingly. Further- 
more, as the cost of publishing medi- 
cal works frequently runs into hun- 
dreds of thousands of dollars it is of 
vital importance that no mistakes be 
made in the choice of subject matter. 
In 1913 Appleton launched one of 
the most notable publications which has ever appeared 
in their medical list. This was a work entitled "Thera- 
peusis of Internal Diseases" prepared by over ninety 
of the foremost authorities under the editorship of 
Dr. Frederick Forchheimer. The work appeared first 
in four and later in six cyclopedic volumes. It was 
issued at a time when the need was acute for an 
exhaustive treatise which would place therapeutics defi- 
nitely upon a sound working basis and give complete 
and practical information on the remedies themselves 
and how to use them. It was, of course, an instantaneous 
success. To illustrate how rapidly medical knowledge 


Frederick Forchheimer, M.D. 


is advancing the Appletons have just issued an entirely 
new "Therapeusis of Internal Diseases," based upon the 
old work, prepared by one hundred and fifty-five eminent 
doctors under the editorship of Dr. George Blumer. Al- 
though only twelve years have elapsed since the earlier 
work appeared, modern conceptions of functional 
pathology have so changed therapeutics that not a chapter 
of the former work could be saved. Other costly sets of 
medical books which have helped to make medical 
history are Alexander B. Johnson's "Surgical Diagnosis,' 
in three volumes ; "Operative Therapeusis," edited by Dr 
Johnson with the cooperation of many leading surgeons 
in five volumes; "Monographic Medicine," by Dr 
Llewellys Barker and others, in six volumes; "Endocri 
nology and Metabolism," also edited by Dr. Barker, in 
three volumes; and "Gynecological and Obstetrical 
Monographs" in fifteen volumes. 

As early as 1847 the House of Appleton published "First 1915 
Steps in Singing" and "Rudimental Lessons in Music" 
by James F. Warner. After Charles A. Dana had com- 
pleted with such success his "Household Book of Poetry" 
he turned his attention to a "Household Book of Songs" 
arranged for four voices which appeared in 1871. It 
was not until 1915, however, that a regularly organized 
Music Department was added to the Appleton business. 
Under the editorship of Albert E. Wier, who already had 
established an enviable reputation as an editor of music 
folios, the Whole World Series of Music Books was 
inaugurated. The first volume was "Songs the Whole 
World Sings." Several hundred thousand copies of this 
collection have been sold. It was immediately followed 
by "Piano Pieces the Whole World Plays," another huge 
seller. From two to four volumes have been added each 
year, covering the whole range of music for the voice, 
piano, violin, saxophone, pipe organ, etc. The most 



recent publication is an important "Encyclopedia of the 
Violin," the only complete work of its kind. Although 
the youngest of the Appleton departments the music 
book business is one of the strongest. Some of the 
"Appleton Green Books," as the Whole World Series 
is known to the music trade, are to be found in nearly 
every home where music is enjoyed. 

1915 Has the reading matter of boys and men improved in the 
last two decades? It would seem so. The dime novel 
has passed and in its place have come virile stories, teem- 
ing with action and incident, which satisfy the masculine 
craving for excitement but keep within the range of 
plausibility; stories with correct backgrounds and with 
rugged but wholesome people for their chief characters. 
It has been one of the Appleton ambitions to supply 
men and boys with such reading matter. The historical 
and Indian stories of Altsheler, Tomlinson, Trevor Hill, 
Marshall and Gregor; the school and college tales of 
Barbour, Heyliger, Walter Camp and Silvers; the ad- 
venture stories of Emerson Hough, Erskine, Miller and 
Verrill have played a considerable part in attracting 
America's youths away from the back-of-the-barn litera- 
ture of bygone days. With such a policy and with such 
a list of favorites, it is small wonder, then, that the 
Boy Scouts of America decided to entrust the publication 
of their official story book, "The Boy Scouts Year Book," 
to the House of Appleton. The first issue appeared in 
1915 and a new volume has been published each fall 
since that time. There is no need to comment on the 
widespread popularity of this annual. Other successful 
books sponsored by the national headquarters of the Boy 
Scouts and edited by their chief Scout Librarian, Frank- 
lin K. Mathiews, are "The Boy Scouts Book of Stories," 
"The Boy Scouts Book of Campfire Stories," and "The 
Boy Scouts Own Book." 



The European War will not have its best histories written, 1919 
perhaps, until another and less biased generation has 
come on the scene. A few outstanding books already 
have appeared, however, and certainly one of the most 
important of these is "Belgium" by the Honorable Brand 
Whitlock. Fate played a curious prank on Brand Whit- 
lock. He accepted the post of Minister to Belgium from 
President Wilson with the belief that it might afford him 
the leisure to write a novel which he contracted to give 
to the Appletons. Not five chapters of the novel had 
been written, however, when Whitlock suddenly found 
himself plunged into the very center of the worst mael- 
strom the world has known. He laid aside the novel to 
become the great diplomat, engaged in one of the most 
delicate tasks that ever confronted a human being. He 
was America's representative in the heart of the War. 
As time went on, the material for a book began to accu- 
mulate. A great deal of "Belgium" was written in the 
heat of the conflict, almost with the guns reverberating in 
the author's ears. His notes, written at night or in odd 
moments, Whitlock put in the Embassy mail pouches and 
they were sent to London where they were stored in a 
safe deposit vault. When the War ended Whitlock col- 
lected his material and began his book. In him were 
embodied the eye-witness who had seen more of the War 
than almost any other American, the historian who knew 
how to select his material and the novelist who knew how 
to write. The result was a book that will live and grow 
in magnitude as the years go by. Other important war 
books bearing the Appleton imprint include John Bach 
McMaster's "The United States in the World War," 
William Barclay Parsons' "The American Engineers in 
France," and Major Vivian Gilbert's recent "The Ro- 
mance of the Last Crusade." Two of the best war 
novels are J. C. Snaith's "The Undefeated" which has 



run through twenty printings and Wilfrid Ewart's "Way 
of Revelation." 

1921 An announcement which set the whole book world talk- 
ing was made by D. Appleton & Company in December 
of 1920. This was a statement that the most popular 
novelist in the world, Harold Bell Wright, had deter- 
mined to become an Appleton author and that thereafter 
his books would bear the Appleton imprint. Mr. Wright 
is a national institution; his name is a household word 
in thousands of homes where ordinary best sellers never 
penetrate. An author who with but ten novels can reach 
the staggering total of over twelve million copies sold, an 
average of over 1,200,000 copies for each book, truly is 
in a class by himself. On the Appleton list the Wright 
books have become a department in themselves, requiring 
special manufacturing, selling, distribution, and promo- 
tion forces. "Helen of the Old House" appeared in 
1921. The older Wright books including "The Winning 
of Barbara Worth" and "The Shepherd of the Hills" 
became Appleton publications in 1923. An adventure 
story of the Southwest, "The Mine with the Iron Door," 
appeared in 1923, and for the Appleton Centennial year 
he has written "A Son of His Father." Many writers 
have sought to imitate Wright but without success. He 
is above all honest, straightforward, sincere; he has a 
moral earnestness that his imitators lack. A preacher 
turned novelist with unparalleled success. 

1921 "The Age of Innocence" by Edith Wharton and "Miss 
Lulu Bett" by Zona Gale were awarded the Pulitzer 
Prizes, the first as the best novel and the second as the 
best play of the year. D. Appleton & Company had 
the honor to publish both books. 

1924 The rapidly developing interest in good poetry and the 
rise of the little theatre in America has lately influenced 



the House of Appleton to give special attention to books 
in these fields. Their list of plays was greatly augmented, 
early in 1924, through the purchase of the publishing 
interests of Stewart Kidd & Company of Cincinnati who 
had specialized in plays 
and books on the drama. 
The Appleton list of 
short plays, published 
separately and in an- 
thologies and groups, is 
now the most important 
in America. The au- 
thors include Booth 
Tarkington, Christopher 
Morley, Eugene O'Neill, 
Edna St. Vincent Millay, 
Wilbur Daniel Steele, 
Stuart Walker, George 
Kelly, Stark Young and 
others. Many valuable 
books of dramatic criti- 
cism and history and the 
technique of the theatre 
are also published. The 
Appleton Library o f 

Verse is a new department of poetry of wide range. 
Don Marquis, Josephine Daskam Bacon, Nellie Burget 
Miller, Joseph C. Lincoln and Edith Wyatt are among 
those contributing volumes. Several interesting an- 
thologies of poems, particularly of modern verse, have 
recently been issued. 

This Picture Shows the Relative Size 

of the First Appleton Book and a 

Popular Novel of the Present Day 

In preparing this chronology it has not seemed desira- 
ble to comment at length on the publications of the last 
decade. Most of these books are too recently im- 
pressed in the minds of the public and the publishers 




for proper estimates to be formed of their importance 
or value. Many novels have been published whose 
sales have run into very large figures; many notable 
works have appeared in history, biography, economics, 
sociology, education, science, literature, music, medicine, 
and all other fields, some of which will unquestionably 
reach exalted positions in the years to come. The 
authors include scores of names too widely known to 

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Library of Their Own Publications 

in the Present Offices of 


readers of to-day to necessitate comment. In their 
hundred years of publishing activity D. Appleton & 
Company have issued, altogether, perhaps 15,000 dif- 
ferent titles. With such an enormous list it has been im- 
possible in this chronology to mention even half the out- 
standing successes. Whole sections might be devoted to 
the important works of Lecky, Haeckel, Shaler, Ball, 
Beecher, Chauveau, Eggleston, Geikie, Gosse, Ibsen, Jor- 



dan, LeConte, Lombroso, Maspero, Sully and Velasquez, 
to name but a few. It has always been the aim of the 
publishers to select with the utmost care the books upon 
which the Appleton imprint is to be placed and it seems 
not unreasonable to believe that in the century a 
quarter of a million book manuscripts have been 
declined. The Appleton lists at the present time 
contain about 3,000 active titles. Because of the tre- 
mendous advances in publishing costs since the war, 
particularly in the printing of small editions, it has 
been necessary to drop from the lists many splendid 
older volumes, for which there is still some demand but 

A Recent Appleton Innovation Was a Book Wagon Which Visited 
Country Districts Where There Are No Bookstores 

not enough to insure their being continued except at 
prohibitive prices. 

The business of the house is to-day conducted through 
six large departments each of which is of sufficient 
size to rank with the most important publishers of its 
respective field. A Trade Department offers the general 
run of books such as may be obtained through the 



regular bookstores — fiction, biography, history, travel, 
belles lettres, sociology, business and the like. A Med- 
ical Department provides the doctors of the country 
with the constantly advancing medical and surgical 
knowledge of the world. A College Department looks 
after the college textbooks and a general Educational 
Department the books for elementary schools and high 
schools and for the teaching profession. A Spanish 
Department upholds the traditions of a century and 
maintains an ever-increasing friendship with the book- 
sellers and educational authorities of the Latin-Amer- 
ican countries. A Music Department, though youngest 
in years, is no laggard in relative importance and is 
already recognized as supplying the most important 
series of music folios obtainable in English. D. Apple- 
ton & Company are also the official publishers for the 
University of Pennsylvania and the University Museum; 
the publishers of commercial texts for the Extension 
Division of the University of Wisconsin; the publishers 
for the National Municipal League; and for the National 
Association of Audubon Societies they publish bi- 
monthly the magazine Bird Lore, under the editorship of 
Dr. Frank M. Chapman. The publications of the house 
range from a tiny boudoir manual to a gigantic eight- 
volume history; from a small speller to a high cyclo- 
pedia; from a book of conundrums to a fifteen-volume 
medical work. The year 1924, the last of the Appleton 
century, saw a new high mark reached in the total sales 
of the corporation. The adage, in the vernacular of the 
day, that the first hundred years are the hardest seems 
borne out by the facts. To the House of Appleton the 
dawn of a second century brings promise of greater 
achievement than ever before.